How To Be Persuasive in Making Arguments: Ethos, Pathos, and Logos
The intent of this article is to be a guide for students who want to become persuasive. This reference guide uses the classical conception of persuasion as devised by Aristotle. Aristotle’s persuasive concepts have withstood the test of time, and are still as relevant today as effective, perhaps the most effective persuasion techniques. These are so effective because they satisfy the necessary and most salient elements behind what we find persuasive in our human nature.
The strongest arguments have all three of these persuasion characteristics discussed below.In life, we make arguments all the time, in order to convince people of various things, from the trivially important to the most dire. We try to convince our parents, our teachers, our bosses, and our friends, etc.
In many of these domains we will need to establish ourselves as trustworthy and as having character, and in others we won’t (because it’s already established). But it’s necessary to know all three of these facets of persuasion discussed in this guide in order to maximize your powers of persuasion.
Aristotle described three aspects to produce a persuasive argument:
What do they mean?
- Ethos is the character of the speaker making the argument
- Logos is the content of the argument itself
- Pathos is the emotional appeal of the argument as experienced by the listener
These three argumentation tactics are found in his work Rhetoric (written 350 B.C.). Read Aristotle’s Rhetoric in full here:
Ethos is a Greek word meaning “character”. Ethos is where we get the word “ethic”. The relevant questions that Ethos is answering is “Is this person who is making the argument worth listening to?” “Does this person have good character and should I pay attention to what they’re saying?”
The speaker’s character is the first thing to establish
Ethos is the first tenet, because it has to be established first, before (or at the beginning of) the argument being made. Establishing the good character and trustworthiness of the speaker up front, at the beginning of the argument, is crucial.If a person’s character isn’t established right up front, then their argument, however sound, might be lost on the listener. The listener has not been properly introduced to the speaker’s Ethos or character, and may not be investing their attention and effort to engage in the argument. The more complicated the argument, then all the more attention and effort that would be required by the listener. So all the more necessary and important to establish good character before making an argument.
How to establish good character
We all have a good idea of what constitutes good character, and what these traits are, such as proper motives, honesty (with no deception or ulterior motives behind making the argument).
The emotional appeal of the argument, as it’s felt and experienced by the listener. It’s an emotional appeal, through the argument, to their inner emotional nature and emotional intelligence. This is done, not in contradiction or in replacement of the argument’s logical content, but in addition to it.
The purpose is to persuade. Emotional import and appeal is very effective in persuading the listener.One way to accomplish this, is to appeal to the listener’s moral sensibilities, such as their sense of justice (or injustice), freedom, dignity (or indignity), and the like.
Another important way to accomplish this is to have solidarity and commonality with the listener, and they we are all experiencing the same things, and labor under the same human conditions and hardships and triumphs. This establishes a kind of emotional alignment.
But you still need actual logical content within the argument. The argument cannot consist of Ethos and Pathos alone, without Logos, or else it is vacuous. Logos is the actual content of the argument itself.
The argument needs to be coherent and understandable. This is what drives the argument home. This is the actual content of the argument; the main position that is being put forward in the argument. This includes the premises, and conclusions. These need to hang together and be logically sound. So it’s important to avoid logical fallacies, which can derail your argument.
See our article The Top 10 Most Common Logical Fallacies.
How To Be Persuasive in Making Arguments: Ethos, Pathos, and Logos FAQ
What is the best way to be persuasive?
The best way to be persuasive is to be develop these three persuasion tactics to the best of your ability. And then use them to improve them and hone them over time: Ethos, Pathos, and Logos. Provide the listener with these three things: Are you a good person who should be regarded and listened-to.
What are the 3 persuasive techniques?
Ethos, Pathos, and Logos. Ethos is the character of the speaker making the argument. Pathos is the emotional import of the argument on its listener. Logos is the logical content of the argument.
How do you develop persuasive skills?
Learn the three persuasion tactics of Ethos, Pathos, and Logos, and how to implement them into your arguments when trying to persuade people. Establish trust, make the argument have emotional appeal to the listener, and keep the argument sound logically. The best way to develop persuasive skills is to learn these three tenets and practice them.
What makes a person persuasive?
What makes a person persuasive is their bona fides and good character to be listened to in making the argument, the emotional appeal and import of their argument upon the listener and how it impacts them on an emotional level, and then third is the soundness of the argument logically.
We have researched and listed the 12 best universities that are deepening our understanding of and creating solutions to global climate change.International Universities Climate Alliance University Climate Change Coalition The Best Universities Solving Climate Change | Ranking Guidelines 20 Best Environmental Science Degree Programs 22 Best Sustainable and Renewable Energy Colleges
The Best Universities Solving Climate Change
Historically, Harvard has connections to the original nationwide rally that would come to be known as ‘Earth Day’. One of the principal organizers of the event, Denis Hayes briefly attended Harvard in 1969. Since then, climate change has become a central area of research at Harvard that spans several disciplines including:
- Engineering and Applied Sciences
- Business and Economics
The Harvard University Center for the Environment (HUCE), directed by Daniel P. Schrag, helps bring together students, professors, and researchers from these various disciplines. The teaching, networking, and collaborative research that arises from the Center helps raise awareness, improves the quality of information available, and provides a global perspective.
HUCE offers a variety of programs including:
- The Environmental Fellows – For recent doctoral graduates who wish to work alongside Harvard faculty members
- The Graduate Consortium on Energy and Environment – Provides networking opportunities for doctoral candidates
- Environmental Science and Public Policy Concentration – For any interested undergraduate students, requires four courses
- Summer Undergraduate Research Fund – Financial support for relevant undergraduate research projects
- Faculty Grants for Exploratory Research
Other research endeavors include:
- The Arctic Initiative – A collaborative effort between the Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program and the Environment and Natural Resources Program addressing climate change in the Arctic.
- Saharan dust storms – A revealing study on how climate change will impact dust storms organized by the Climate Change Institute at the University of Maine and the Initiative for the Science of the Human Past at Harvard.
- Offshore wind farms – The Huazhong University of Science and Technology in China and the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences partnered to research offshore wind farms as a solution to the need for renewable energy.
Harvard also publishes a monthly newsletter titled the ‘Climate Optimist’ which highlights positive environmental tips and encouraging stories.
2.University of Washington
As part of its commitment to sustainability, the University of Washington published a Climate Action Plan in 2009 and regular updates since then. The goal is to reduce carbon emissions by 36% from the 2005 numbers by 2035. Interested students may explore the University’s future plans and Sustainability Dashboard. There is a four-part video series available detailing
“sustainability efforts in the areas of research, teaching, co-curricular programs, and campus operations”.
- Aquatic and Fishery Sciences
- Atmospheric Sciences
- Earth and Space Sciences
- Environmental Science
The study of climate change is interspersed throughout each area. Students have access to resources such as:
- The Climate Impacts Group – A group of University of Washington scientists from various areas striving to identify, develop, and advance comprehensive climate change solutions both in the field and in government legislation.
- The Northwest Climate Adaptation Science Center – An interdisciplinary research center that works in collaboration with several other universities as well as the US Department of the Interior. The center is co-hosted by the Climate Impacts Group and the EarthLab.
- The Cooperative Institute for Climate, Ocean and Ecosystem Studies – Specifically focusing on the impacts of climate change on ocean, atmosphere, and fishery sciences. The Institute is a collaborative partnership between the University of Washington, University of Alaska Fairbanks, and Oregon State University.
- The Program on Climate Change – Promotes and amplifies climate change work throughout the University of Washington through courses, events, guest speakers, and more.
Last but not least, there are several research units at the University of Washington exploring cutting-edge solutions for climate change from sustainable forestry to the Washington Botanical gardens.
3.Oregon State University
Oregon State University is an International Universities Climate Alliance member.
The College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences offers 13 undergraduate and graduate programs. Each program addresses climate change in its own area. Some of the areas of study include:
- Ocean Science
- Marine Resource Management
- Environmental Sciences
- Geographic Information Sciences
The oceanographic and atmospheric programs are unique to the state of Oregon. Professors are world-class scholars and researchers who bring personal experience to the classroom. Their research expertise covers:
- The Geosphere
- Atmospheric Sciences
- Geography and Geospatial Sciences
Students and professors have access to top research facilities such as:
- OSU Marine and Geology Repository – This group aims to protect marine samples for future research.
- Ocean Observatories Initiative – Maintains a sensor system that takes a variety of measurements of the ocean and sea floor, looking for patterns and changes
- Ice Core & Quaternary Geochemistry Lab – Researchers climate and biogeochemical cycles of the past
Additionally, Oregon State University is home to the PRISM Climate Group. This research group gathers and analyzes a range of information in search of climate patterns. Information is collected from a wide variety of monitoring networks. Datasets range from as early as 1895 to the present. Much of the information is available to the public.
4.California Institute of Technology (Caltech)
Caltech is home to the Climate Dynamics Group. This collaborative group focuses on atmospheric dynamics on Earth as well as on other planets. Researchers strive to answer questions such as:
“What controls the surface temperatures and winds? What shapes rainfall patterns? Where and when do clouds form in the atmosphere?”
These questions require the accumulation and analysis of large amounts of data. Thanks to the advancement of computer and space technology such observations are possible and will contribute to scientific discovery. The Climate Dynamics Group is applying their information to improve climate predictions and weather forecasting models. As such, the Climate Dynamics Group is part of the Climate Modeling Alliance (CliMA).
CliMA is a multidisciplinary group of researchers from Caltech, the Naval Postgraduate School, MIT, and NASA. The focus of the group is to provide accurate information in regards to weather extremes such as droughts, heat waves, and rainfall. The goal is to implement mitigating actions wherever possible and to setup resilient infrastructure where mitigation is not possible.
Dan McCleese is Project Manager of CliMA and a visiting associate professor at CalTech.
5.University of California, San Diego
San Diego, CA
The University of California, San Diego (UCSD) is an International Universities Climate Alliance member. UCSD also has a STARS Gold rating from Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE).
The University promotes on campus climate improvement through two green programs:
- Green Labs program – Strives to balance research effectiveness with a reduced carbon footprint without compromising safety or the quality of research
- Green Office certification – The Green Office team evaluates campus environments and strives to help each office meet the Climate Action Plan of the University. The team offers improvement strategies in the areas of waste reduction, transportation, and energy efficiency.
The Climate Action Plan for the University at large details the schools overall strategy to become carbon neutral by 2025. The Action Plan recommends a ‘diversified’ approach to this goal.
Another large source of climate change education and research at UCSD comes from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. The Institute offers a variety of degree programs including:
- A one-year professional master’s degree in Mas-Climate Science and Policy
- Bachelor’s degrees in:
- Environmental Systems
- Marine Biology
- Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences
- Earth Sciences
- Climate Change Studies minor
- Several relevant PhD and Master’s degrees
The Institute manages a number of Climate Change Research Centers including:
- Center for Climate Change Impacts and Adaption – emphasizes academic-community partnerships with the focus areas of
- Sea-level rise and coastal hazards
- Marine ecosystems and climate change
- Human health and climate change
- Scripps Polar Center – A diverse group of scientists from Scripps who focus on all things related to the Polar environment
- Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation – Strives to maintain the integrity of ocean ecosystems and to preserve them for future use and study
- Center for Aerosol Impacts on Chemistry of the Environment – Studies the effects of aerosol particles on the atmosphere
- Center For Western Weather and Water Extremes – Uses technology to improve tracking weather systems and implement effective outreach programs
6.Arizona State University
Perhaps the largest resource for information, research, and education at ASU regarding climate change can be found through the Global Institute of Sustainability and Innovation (GIOSI) . It is the central location for sustainability research, it maintains over 20 centers, initiatives, and networks, and is the connection point for several educational opportunities.
Some of the research centers and initiatives include:
- Center for Biodiversity Outcomes – Focuses on preserving biodiversity for the future.
- Healthy Urban Environments Initiative – Focuses on ways to decrease air pollution in cities.
- Swette Center for Sustainable Food Systems – Researching diverse food systems that are more resilient.
- Global Drylands Center – Focuses on dryland stewardship
GIOSI maintains a data portal that is free to search for any datasets that GIOSI researchers have published.
GIOSI offers educational opportunities in connection with the College of Global Futures. The College of Global Futures consists of
- The School for the Future of Innovation in Society
- The School of Sustainability
- The School of Complex Adaptive Systems
Course and program offerings range from certificate through doctoral level. GIOSI helps connect students in these various programs with appropriate internship experiences for their education level and desired career goals.
There is much more for students to explore in connection with climate change through ASU including:
7.Texas A&M University
College Station, TX
Texas A&M University is an International Universities Climate Alliance member.
The College of Geosciences at Texas A&M University offers undergraduate and graduate programs in the areas of:
- Atmospheric Sciences
- Geology and Geophysics
- Environmental Programs
The Environmental Programs degrees offer an interdisciplinary foundation for understanding the Earth. The available degrees include:
- Bachelor of Science in Environmental Geosciences – This program focuses on practical application with a heavy math and science emphasis. Specialization areas are available in:
- Climate Change
- Coastal and Marine Environments
- Human Impact on the Environment
- Bachelor of Science in Environmental Studies – This program focuses on the politics and policy implementation effecting climate change. Specialization areas are available in :
- Urban Environments
- Geographic Information Science and Technology
- Environmental Regulation and Compliance
- Occupational Health and Safety
- Global Environment
- A fast track Bachelor of Science in the Environmental Geosciences and Master of Ocean Science and Technology degree. Students complete this program in five years.
There are also three relevant minor programs available. The Climate change minor evaluates both the science and the politics behind the field. The minor requires 16 hours of course work. Some course options include:
- Geography of Energy
- Global Climatic Regions
- Past Climates
- Polar Regions of the Earth
- Science and Politics of Climate Change
A similar Environmental Geosciences minor is also available to students outside of the Environmental programs. Classes focus on how the environment and Earth’s systems interact. This minor requires 15 hours of course work.
Finally, the Earth Systems minor focuses on Earth’s systems and processes. This minor requires 15 hours of course work.
Students have access to hands-on research through cutting-edge facilities such as:
- TAMU GeoServices – offers information processing services and research areas such as geocoding
- The Center for Geospatial Sciences, Applications and Technology
- International Laboratory for High-Resolution Earth System Prediction
8.University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
University of Illinois, Urbana is an International Universities Climate Alliance member.
At the University of Illinois, the College of Agriculture, Consumer and Environmental Sciences offers 12 undergraduate majors in addition to several graduate programs, certificates, and minors.
There are a number of programs relevant to creating a sustainable future through positive environmental and climate changes. Perhaps some of the most pertinent degrees can be found through the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences. This department offers
“educational and research programs [centered] on science, applied ecology, and conservation in a variety of aquatic, terrestrial and human dominated ecosystems.”
At the undergraduate level, the Bachelor of Science degree in Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences offers four concentrations:
- Ecosystem Stewardship and Restoration Ecology
- Environmental Science and Management
- Fish, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology
- Human Dimensions of the Environment
Each program requires 126 credits total, which includes at least one Field Experience course. Students may continue on to graduate level study as well.
Research areas specific to the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences include:
- Applied Animal Ecology and Conservation
- Global Environmental Change
- Human Dimensions of the Environment
- Landscape and Ecosystem Ecology
- Microbial Communities and Functions
- Restoration Ecology
Students have access to additional tools and information such as Cli-MATE (MRCC’s Application Tools Environment). This is an online research platform for a variety of climate data. The University also has a published Climate Action Plan which details the University’s goal to being carbon neutral by 2050 or sooner.
9.Pennsylvania State University
State College, PA
Pennsylvania State University is an International Universities Climate Alliance member
The College of Earth and Mineral Sciences offers Bachelor, Master, and Doctoral programs. The College is comprised of five departments:
- John and Willie Leone Family Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering
- Department of Geography
- Department of Geosciences
- Department of Materials Science and Engineering
- Department of Meteorology and Atmospheric Science
Each program through the various departments touches on climate change and environmental preservation in its own way. Students find other excellent resources and research opportunities through:
- Future Energy, Water, Landscape Initiative – The goal is to navigate an increasing population with the demands on the Earth’s resources. Researchers in this initiative are exploring energy options that also promote a clean and healthy environment. Additionally, they want to address water shortage issues and how those shortages relate to climate change.
- Sustainability Institute – Though taking a broad, holistic approach, the Sustainability Institute includes climate action as part of its goals.
- Earth and Environmental Systems Institute – A national leading interdisciplinary group of researchers all working towards solutions to the most pressing environmental challenges. The Institute works with:
Additionally, students can view the Climate Action Plan for the University which shows a 32 percent reduction in the campus greenhouse gasses since 2005.
Cornell University is an International Universities Climate Alliance member.
The Cornell Atkinson Center for Sustainability is the central location for information, programs, and research regarding climate change and sustainability. The Center has four research focus areas:
In regards to Climate, the Center is using innovative technology and policy changes to address critical areas including:
- Effects of sea level rise
- Climate-induced human migration
- Reducing greenhouse gas concentrations
- Catastrophic weather
The Center provides research opportunities for both undergraduate and graduate students.
Cornell also manages several other research programs including:
- The Cornell Climate Smart Solutions Program – A team of diverse researchers working to increase climate literacy and improve agricultural and community systems that impact the environment through the use of smart technology.
- The Cornell Climate Smart Farming (CSF) Program – A more specific program developed to provide information and resources to farmers to minimize climate impact.
- The Climate Action Plan for the University – Details Cornell’s plan for carbon neutrality
In regards to educational programs, Cornell offers a Bachelor of Science in Environment and Sustainability with six concentrations:
- Environmental Biology and Applied Ecology
- Environmental Economics
- Environmental Humanities
- Environmental Policy and Governance
- Land, Air and Water Resources
- Individual Student-Designed Concentration
A Climate Change minor is also available.
For more information students are invited to visit the Sustainability home page.
11.New York University
New York, NY
New York University is an International Universities Climate Alliance member.
At New York University (NYU), the Office of Sustainability is the central hub for information on NYU’s climate goals. The University’s aim is to be carbon neutral by 2040. As part of the campus resiliency efforts, NYU uses CoGeneration power. The on-campus generator plant uses waste heat from the production of electricity to provide energy for campus buildings. In this way, classrooms are temperature controlled more effectively and are more resistant to large-scale blackouts.
NYU offers several educational opportunities for students interested in the field of climate change. The Department of Environmental Studies offers a major in Environmental Studies and a minor in Animal Studies. The major requires students to complete a total of 36 points in classes. Students receive a broad understanding of local and global environmental issues. Students may pursue areas of specialization such as:
- Environmental values, policy, and law
- Public Health
- Energy Systemts
- Environmental Justice
NYU also offers a Master of Arts in Environmental Conservation Education. Here students will study in depth how human activity effects the environment. The degree requires 37 credits for completion. Climate related internships are available through several institutions such as:
- Earth Day Network
- National Park Service
- U.S. Composting Council
- World Resources Institute
New Haven, Connecticut
Yale University is an International Universities Climate Alliance member.
The Yale School of the Environment was founded in 1900. It offers graduate level study with both professional and research-oriented tracks. Joint degrees are also available for students interested in cross-disciplinary study. It is a central location for research and information on environmental topics for both the local region and the globe. Faculty expertise covers a broad spectrum including:
- Climate Change and Climate Science
- Environmental Justice
- Natural Resource Management and Policy
Part of the School of the Environment is the Yale program on Climate Change Communication, directed by Dr. Anthony Leiserowitz. This research based initiative uses a variety of social and entertainment media to educate and influence general attitudes and behaviors towards climate change. The program also provides resources for leaders in the field to communicate more effectively with the public.
Additionally, the Yale Center on Climate Change and Health analyzes numerous health factors such as increased morbidity and respiratory diseases and the relation to climate change and resource scarcity. The goal of the center is to see a stable climate in a world with a thriving, diverse ecosystem.
Finally, Yale’s Sustainability page provides further information on the University’s Climate Action plan, stewardship goals, and reusing materials.
There is no ranking of importance (or any other ranking factor) of schools, programs, initiatives, etc., in this list. Each university is contributing in important ways to solving climate change. The order is arbitrary.
The 26 Best Universities Fighting Human Trafficking is a list of the best universities located in the U.S. that are studying and fighting human trafficking.
These universities offer various academic programs, resources, and initiatives for understanding, tracking, and fighting human trafficking locally, federally, and internationally. The first five universities in this list offer various degree options in the subject of Human Trafficking.
The scope of human trafficking can and often does cross international borders. But it is also a domestic issue facing the United States. These universities are at the front lines of academic pursuits to understand and fight human trafficking domestically and abroad.
What is Human Trafficking?
The U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics defines it:
[H]uman trafficking has occurred if a person was induced to perform labor or a commercial sex act through force, fraud, or coercion. Any person under age 18 who performs a commercial sex act is considered a victim of human trafficking, regardless of whether force, fraud, or coercion was present.
Q: What Are Relevant Degrees to Fight Human Trafficking?
A: Relevant Degrees for Fighting Human Trafficking |Jump Down Page to Degrees|
Q: What are Human Trafficking Statistics?
A: Human Trafficking Statistics |Jump Down Page to Statistics|
Public and Private Agencies Fighting Human Trafficking
U.S. Government Investments to Combat Human Trafficking |Jump Down Page To Agencies|
Department of Homeland Security | Human Trafficking Hotlines |Jump Down Page To Hotlines|
The Best Universities Fighting Human Trafficking
1.The George Washington University
George Washington University (GWU) offers a Master of Arts in International Development Studies. The program is under the direction of Professor Sean Roberts, a former official for the U.S. Agency for International Development. Students must complete a total of 40 credits for the program including:
- 10 credits of core courses
- 12 credits of Analytical courses
- 18 credits of Specialization courses
Students have 12 areas of specialization to select from including:
- Conflict and Development
- Culture, Society, and Development
- Gender and Development
- Humanitarian Assistance
Students must complete a minimum of 18 credits within a specialization area, leaving plenty of room to customize their educational experience. Students who wish to focus on the human trafficking crisis may take courses such as:
- Human Trafficking
- Care of Children in Complex Emergencies
- Violence, Gender and Humanitarian Assistance
- Gender, Disaster and Development
Completing a thesis is optional. The program offers start dates in both the Fall and the Spring.
Additionally, GWU offers a Graduate Certificate in Global Gender Policy. This is a 15-credits program that Master’s students can also take as an area of specialization. There is one three-credit required course, the other 12 credits students may choose from a list of supporting courses. This leaves ample opportunity for students to specialize in the human trafficking crisis. Some of these classes include:
- Sexuality and the Law
- International Human Rights of Women
- The Sex Industry
- Race, Gender, and Class
Both of these programs are available through the Elliot School of International Affairs.
Admissions: Students interested in the Master of Arts program must submit prior academic transcripts, two letters of recommendation, a resume or CV, and a statement of purpose. Students must also have previous course work complete in a secondary language. GRE or GMAT testing scores are optional.
2.University of Denver
Through the Josef Korbel School of International Studies at the University of Denver, students may enroll in a Master of Arts program in International Human Rights. This program focuses on human dignity and human rights through the study of history, social movements, and institutions. Students must complete at least four classes from three different areas of specialization. Specialization areas are available in:
- Economic Development and Health Rights
- Security Rights and Humanitarian Assistance
- Region or Countries
- Human Rights Themes
Students must also complete two classes from:
- International Studies Core Classes
- Core Human Rights Classes
- Methods and Skills Courses
The program encourages students to participate in field trips and internships for hands-on experience. Students have access to three centers for research and networking opportunities:
- Center on Human Rights Education – emphasized the connection between economic, social, cultural, and human rights.
- Human Trafficking Center – uses data driven research and community connections to understand the causes, conditions, and solutions to human trafficking
- Human Rights and Human Welfare – an online academic journal offering a range of scholarly content
3.Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey
Middlebury Institute is a private school offering mainly graduate and professional training in a multilingual environment. Though the school enrolls a small student body of less than 1,000 pupils, there are 53 countries and 45 native languages represented. This diversity lends itself to a cross-cultural experience in every class.
The Institute offers a Master of Arts in International Policy and Development. The program requires a total of 60 credits that most students complete over four semesters. The International Policy and Development (IPD) program is very similar to the Master of Public Administration program, sharing faculty and core curriculum. The IPD program offers five career-oriented specializations:
- Intercultural Competence
- Migration and Global Governance
- Evaluation and Analytics
- Financial Crime Management
- Conflict Resolution and Social Justice
The Conflict Resolution and Social Justice specialization in particular benefits students seeking to study the human trafficking crisis. This specialization emphasizes the benefits of conflict intervention, strengthening personal ethics as they relate to challenging social situations, and developing professional skills including communication, negotiation, and mediation. Possible elective courses include:
- Women and War
- Human Trafficking
- Fieldwork and Reporting
- Peace Education for the 21st Century (taught in Spanish)
Students complete the MA program with a final professional practicum.
4.Columbia Southern University
Orange Beach, AL
As a part of the Continuing Education program, Columbia Southern University offers an online Human Trafficking Investigation Certificate. This certificate program is offered in partnership with the Human Trafficking Investigations and Training Institute (HTITI). HTITI is a company that provides educational and legal serves, all dedicated to Anti-Human Trafficking solutions.
The Human Trafficking Investigation certificate requires three courses:
- Human Trafficking Awareness
- The United States Response to Human Trafficking
- Law Enforcement Investigations of Human Trafficking Crimes
These courses are available online. The completion of each course awards students with continuing education units, but not college credits. It is possible to gain college credits, however these requests are evaluated on a one-by-one basis.
New Castle, DE
Wilmington University offers an Undergraduate Certificate in Human Trafficking Awareness through the College of Social and Behavioral Sciences. The program focuses on identifying victims and advocacy, both locally and globally. In-class and online format options are available. The program greatly benefits those who work in, or want to work in these areas:
- ER and medical professions
- Law enforcement
- Social work
- Mental health counseling
Students must complete a total of 18 credits. The required core classes are:
- Human Trafficking
- Investigating Human Trafficking
- Human Trafficking Advocacy & Change
Students may customize their learning experience through electives such as:
- Multicultural Issues in Criminal Justice
- Healthcare Emergency Management
- Introduction to Trauma-Informed Approaches
- Homelessness in America
- Step-Parenting & Blended Families
Start date: Every eight weeks
Admissions: Applicants interested in the undergraduate certificate programs must submit an application the Wilmington University with official high school transcripts. Students already attending Wilmington University must simply contact their academic advisor to discuss adding the certificate to their current academic program.
6.The University of Texas at Austin
At the University of Texas at Austin, the Institute on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault (IDVSA) is a collaboration of the Schools of Social Work, Law, and Nursing, the Bureau for Business Research, and hundreds of statewide community partners. The institute was founded in 2001 by a small group of researchers and faculty from the Steve Hicks School of Social Work at The University of Texas at Austin, most of who had significant direct service and practice experience with survivors prior to joining the University. Noel Busch-Armendariz, one of the founders of IDVSA, is the Director.
Research focuses around four areas:
- Campus Sexual Assault and Misconduct
- Domestic Violence and Intimate Partner Violence
- Human Trafficking
- Sexual Assault
Human Trafficking research at the Institute focuses on the various forms of trafficking and in particular looks at who constitutes the more vulnerable targets. The Institute has become a leader in this field in the state of Texas. Some of the studies of the Institute include:
- Human Trafficking Supply Chain Networks, funded by the National Science Foundation
- Child Sex Trafficking in Texas: Experiences and Risk
- Statewide Human Trafficking Mapping Project for Texas
- Survivors of Trafficking Empowerment Program, studied in collaboration with the Refugee Services of Texas
IDVSA is instrumental in advancing knowledge and training regarding human trafficking:
- Busch-Armendariz created and continues to teach one of the first human trafficking undergraduate courses for credit in the nation, offered for about a decade.
- The institute also offers local and community-based training- across Texas and the U.S, on the ethical use of expert witnesses in human trafficking cases.
- Institute experts serve as expert witnesses in human trafficking cases
In addition, Noel Busch-Armendariz, IDVSA’s Director, wrote the first U.S. human trafficking textbook, “Human Trafficking: Applying Research, Theory, and Case Studies, which won the Hamilton Book Award, UT’s most prestigious literary prize.
The Institute offers other educational opportunities such as:
- Final Field Internships
- Graduate Research Assistantships
- Research Fellows Program
- Teaching Assistant Positions
- Shield-Ayres Advancing Social Justice Doctoral Research Fellow
Since 2001, the Institute has received over $14 million in federal, state, and local funding. These resources have allowed the Institute to produce over 90
“research, education, training, and curriculum-development projects”
and provide eight researchers with $40,000 in “Seed Grants”.
Stanford University manages the Center for Human Rights and International Justice, directed by David Cohen. As the name suggests, the center focuses on human dignity and social justice issues on a global scale. The center traces its history back to 1999 when it was known as the War Crimes Studies Center. Four major interdisciplinary programs run out of the center:
- Rule of Law, Justice Sector Reform, Transitional Justice, and Accountability
- Human Trafficking Research
- Digital Archives and New Technologies
- Human Rights in Trauma Mental Health
The Human Trafficking Research program emphasizes research and policy advocacy, capacity building, and engagement with local partners in the US, South America, Africa, and Asia. The center co-hosts two annual events promoting research and networking:
- The annual Freedom from Slavery Forum with co-host Free the Slaves located in Washington, D.C.
- The Annual Summer Institute for International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights, with co-host the Human Rights Resource Center for ASEAN
In terms of policy advocacy in the US, the center participates in the San Francisco Mayor’s Task Force on Anti-Human Trafficking and Alliance. Trafficking research publications can be viewed here.
8.Arizona State University
In 2013 Arizona State University opened the Office of Sex Trafficking Intervention Research (STIR). The goal was to create a centralized location for research and information sources on domestic sex trafficking.
The main STIR page offers links to resources for personnel who may be in contact with trafficked victims such as healthcare workers and law enforcement. These links are for:
- Sex Trafficking Help – offers services for
- Housing and Shelter
- Case Management
- Victim Advocacy
- Therapeutic Services
- Medical Services
- Legal Services
- Educational Services
- Project STARFISH – Sex Trafficking Awareness For Individual Strength and Hope (STARFISH)
- Information geared towards teachers and educators to raise awareness in the school setting
The STIR research page provides a collection of studies and survey information some of which include:
- Child Sex Trafficking in Las Vegas
- Sex Trafficking in Hawaii: Exploring Online Sex Buyers
- A Four Year Analysis of Labor Trafficking Cases in the U.S.
A free online training module is available with comprehensive, introductory material about recognizing risk factors, warning signs, and potential victims.
9.University of San Diego
San Diego, CA
The Joan B. Kroc School of Peace Studies (Kroc School) continues the visionary work of its namesake, Joan B. Kroc. As the West Coast Capital of Peace Education, its mission is to equip and empower innovative change-makers to shape more peaceful and just societies. Patricia Marquez, PhD, is the current Dean.
The Kroc School houses two globally recognized research and networking institutes:
One ground breaking research study produced by the Kroc School is the study of Human Trafficking in San Diego. The full Human Trafficking Study report details “The Nature and Extent of Gang Involvement in Sex Trafficking in San Diego County”.
The study is considered one of the most comprehensive investigations to date on the subject and has fueled prevention efforts in San Diego. Kroc School Associate Professor Ami Carpenter, PhD was the lead investigator with Jamie Gates, PhD (from Point Loma Nazarene University) as the co-investigator. Approximately 1,200 individuals were interviewed or provided data towards the study.
Additionally, Carpenter recently helped launch a University wide initiative called Partners Against Exploitation (PAX). This multidisciplinary project seeks to prevent human trafficking and other forms of exploitation through advocacy, education, and cross-sector partnerships.
The academic programs available at the Kroc School include:
- Master of Arts in Peace and Justice
- Master of Arts in Social Innovation
- Master of Science in Conflict Management and Resolution
- JD/MAPJ Dual Degree in Law and Peace and Justice
The individual Master’s programs run one to two years in length for full-time students. Part-time enrollment is also available.
Interested applicants must submit transcripts, resume, short essays (number varies by program), and two letters of recommendation. Applicants do not need to submit standardized test scores. Applicants interested in the Master of Science program must have three years of relevant professional experience.
10.University of Georgia
The U.S. Department of State granted the University of Georgia (UGA) $15.75 million to use towards human trafficking research and resources. UGA will use some of the funds to increase the work of the African Programming and Research Initiative to End Slavery (APRIES). This initiative is working to end human trafficking in Sierra Leone and Guinea and is seeking to expand resources into Senegal.
Another portion of the funds will help launch the Prevalence Reduction Innovation Forum. Principal investigator of the project and Director of APRIES, David Okech hopes this forum will
“build a global community of researchers and learners in the science of estimating human trafficking prevalence”.
The Forum had its first conference meeting early in 2020. With an increase in the number of research teams and different data collection methods, the goal is to improve the severe lack of data that currently hinders intervention programs across the globe.
Other investigators include:
11.University of Minnesota – Twin Cities
Twin Cities, MN
The Robert J. Jones Urban Research and Outreach Engagement Center (UROC) at the University of Minnesota works publicly with urban communities on a variety of social issues. The Center’s goals include:
- Improving urban education
- Raising the quality of life in urban communities
- Advancing other social issues into public awareness in the hopes of solutions
The Center promotes hands-on projects such as:
- Northside Job Creation Team
- Trauma Recovery Project
- Critical Conversations
- Sex Trading, Trafficking and Community Well-Being Initiative
The ongoing Sex Trading, Trafficking and Community Well-Being Initiative is an academic research collaborative. UROC Director of Research Lauren Martin is promoting the Initiative through local, individual, government, and corporate partnerships. The focus of the research is both national and with a special focus on North Minneapolis. The research team is collecting
“multiple forms of knowledge on sex trading”.
Already, the work of the Initiative has led to policy and legislative changes at the local and state levels.
Projects and reports within the Initiative include:
12.Georgia State University
Georgia State Law professor Jonathan Todres is leading expert on human trafficking, in particular human rights and public health approaches to the issue. Todres teamed recently with Dr. Angela Diaz, Director of the Mount Sinai Adolescent Health Center, to research and publish a new book titled “Preventing Child Trafficking: A Public Health Approach” (also available through major distributors including Amazon and Barnes & Noble).
In the book, Todres and Diaz detail the value of public health methodologies in addressing human trafficking and lay out a “toolkit” which can serve as a starting point for advancing prevention efforts. In other research, Todres has shed light on relevant children’s rights law, the role of the private sector, and other issues that are important to addressing human trafficking.
Professor Todres also teaches about human trafficking in selected courses at GSU Law.
13.University of South Florida
The University of South Florida (USF) has granted a Strategic Investment Award to
“establish the Human Trafficking Risk to Resilience Research Lab“.
USF granted the lab $120,000 from internal grants to cover the expenses of the research, and to allow three graduate students to participate in the project.
Criminology professor Joan Reid is the lead investigator with professors Shelly Wagers, Bryanna Fox, and Fawn Ngo as co-principal investigators. The lab emphasizes interdisciplinary researchers and community partnerships in an effort to study and combat human trafficking in the Tampa Bay, Florida area.
Researchers noted that the Tampa Bay area is
“a hotspot for child sex trafficking due to a number of community vulnerabilities”.
The first research project of the lab analyzed
“hundreds of suspected child sex trafficking cases compiled by Child Protective Investigators in the Pasco County Sheriff’s Office”.
The goal of the research was to create and analyze a variety of child sex trafficking profiles. The lab is coordinating efforts with Ken Kilian, the Director of Pasco’s Child Protective Investigations.
In the future, Reid hopes to expand the scope of the lab to include research on all forms of human trafficking involving children and adults.
Reid’s past experiences combating human trafficking include over 30 journal publications, including participation in a national report that was presented to Congress in 2008.
14.Pennsylvania State University
State College, PA
Font, Miyamoto, and Pinto worked together on one particular study that examined over 2,000 reports filed with Children and Youth Services (CYS).
Most CYS cases of child abuse go unsubstantiated due to insufficient evidence. Part of the study goals were developing methods of improving CYS investigations into abuse claims. The study investigations recommended:
- Improved training
- Better mentoring and supervision
- Easier access to forensic interviewers and medical providers
At the state level, the study results recommended six key changes:
- Broaden the scope of data to beyond fatal and foster care cases. A narrow scope of data misrepresents the larger issue
- Do not delete information from ‘unfounded’ or ‘invalid’ cases. Eliminating data prevents the possibility of seeing larger patterns
- Implement a centralized screening process that involves the whole family. Focusing on a single child may overlook at risk siblings.
- Use a centralized electronic system to store and organize data
- Improve coordination with Child Advocacy Centers across the state
- Hire more qualified employees trained in this area
Pinto emphasized the need for
“adequate funding…and multi-level collaborations between CYS, law enforcement and medical first-responders”
to really make a positive impact on the human trafficking issue.
Additionally, doctoral student Anna Ssentongo and colleagues of PSU created the Pennsylvania coalition against human trafficking. Launched in 2020, this diverse group of state and local agencies, including non-profit organizations, provides online support and resources to trafficking survivors.
The coalition aims to educate all those who come into contact with potential trafficking victims, increase collaboration between those who can help, and provide support for survivors. The long term goal is to end human trafficking in the state of Pennsylvania.
15.University of Toledo
Since 2000 the University of Toledo has been at the forefront of the fight against human trafficking. The Human Trafficking and Social Justice Institute was established to provide educational and research opportunities leading to productive community outreach and engagement. The focus of the Institute is broad, covering both immediate needs and practical steps as well as investigating the root cause of social justice issues.
The Institute offers several resources and events including:
- The Annual International Human Trafficking and Social Justice Conference – a collaborative, networking opportunity that brings together anyone with an interest in helping to solve the human trafficking issue.
- F.R.E.E. program (Foundation, Readiness, Education, Employment) – helps survivors find economic and psychological freedom
- Youth Pages – an online resource for Toledo youth
- Human Trafficking Screening Tool for Mental Health Professionals
- The Global Association of Human Trafficking Scholars (GAHTS) – working to solve human trafficking on an international level
- Community Training – For any local residents who wish to be involved
Providence, Rhode Island
Brown University manages the Center for the Study of Slavery & Justice. In 2015, the Center established the Human Trafficking Research Cluster (HTRC). The research cluster is directed by Dr. Elena Shih, Assistant Professor of American Studies and Ethnic Studies. HTRC encourages collaborative research and cooperation. Both undergraduate and graduate students are given research opportunities. Particular interest is given to how “race, class, gender, nation, and sexual forms of power and inequality govern contemporary anti-trafficking efforts”.
HTRC maintains partnerships with local and global sex worker rights organizations. In particular, HTRC has partnered with Rhode Islands only sex worker rights organization, COYOTE (Call Off Your Old Tired Ethics) RI. One of the many benefits of this partnership includes
“a historic Rhode Island House Bill to study the impact of the 2009 decriminalization of indoor prostitution in the state”.
Dr. Shih is the recipient of the 2020 Howard R. Swearer Engaged Faculty Award for Research.
HTRC has hosted several events in the past including:
- Fighting Human Trafficking and Labor Exploitation on U.S. Soil: Chinese Construction Workers in Saipan
- Whitewashing Abolition: Race, Displacement, and Combating Human Trafficking
- “Global Explorations of Human Trafficking: Race and Labor”
- Philippine Sex Worker’s Collective and Global Anti-Trafficking Activism
17.University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Ann Arbor, MI
In 2009 the University of Michigan initiated the Human Trafficking Clinic (HTC). The first of its kind, HTC is a law program and fully functional law office with the sole focus of human trafficking. The clinic is directed by professor Bridgette Carr.
The clinic provides students with both domestic and international human trafficking case studies. Students have ample opportunity to practice advocacy skills and obtain real-world experience. Students can interact and network with those involved with human trafficking including law enforcement members and human trafficking survivors.
In addition to educational opportunities, HTC offers a plethora of direct legal services. All of the cases at HTC are managed by law students under supervision. Cases include a variety of aspects related to human trafficking including:
- Post-adjudication criminal relief
- Access to public benefits
- Victim-witness advocacy
The clinic does not
“prosecute cases against criminals or investigate criminal matters”.
18.University of Houston
The Borders, Trade, and Immigration Institute, a Department of Homeland Security Center of Excellence, led by at the University of Houston focuses on research and education. The Institute focuses on these topics:
- Secure national borders
- Facilitate legal trade and travel
- Improve the integrity of the immigration system
The Institute brings together researchers from a multitude of disciplines for networking and information sharing. It is the hope of the Institute that through cooperative, multi-disciplinary study solutions will arise.
In regards to human trafficking, the Institute hosted a lunch-and-learn. Speakers at the event included:
- Alfonso Lopez de la Osa Escribano, PhD, director of the Center for U.S. and Mexican Law at the University of Houston Law Center
- Juhi Jain, MD, fellow with Emory University Children’s Healthcare Hospital
- Edward Gallagher, JD, adjunct professor at UH Law Center
- Sherri Lynn Zack, JD, Assistant US Attorney for the Southern District of Texas and Chief of the Human Trafficking Rescue Alliance
The panelists discussed
“the roles and responsibilities of the legal and medical professions in combating human trafficking”.
Some challenges addressed were the balance between patient confidentiality and the need to report a human trafficking case, the mental and physical health issues of human trafficking victims, and the evolution of the law.
19.Montclair State University
The Montclair Initiative on Global Human Trafficking wants to address and bring attention to all aspects of this global issue through education, law, art and research. Their vision is to play a leadership role in contributing significant knowledge, expertise and resources to the effort to end human trafficking.
The group’s strategic areas of focus includes:
- Education and Training
- Advocacy Policy
- Networking and Sharing
- Victim Services
The group home page offers links for:
- Defining human trafficking – provides a definition and detailed statistical information
- Recognizing human trafficking – provides several signs to recognize a potential victim
- What you can do – the general public can help through being informed, reporting tips, and knowing their local resources
- The Resources and Partnership link provides local information for the state of New Jersey, global organizations, and links to several presentations and reports.
Professor Janie Chuang is on staff at American University’s Washington College of Law. Chaung received her Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy and International Studies from Yale University. She went on to complete her J.D. at Harvard Law School where she graduated cum laude.
Chuang’s areas of specialization are labor migration, human trafficking, and international law. In regards to human trafficking issues, Chuang has acted as an advisor to:
- The International Labor Organization
- The Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe
- The United Nations
Chuang continues to be deeply involved in the human trafficking issue through the Freedom Network USA and the Modern-Day Slavery and Trafficking Working Group at Yale University. Any student interested in studying human trafficking would do well to consider studying under Professor Chuang.
Chuang is also a participant in the Interdisciplinary Project on Human Trafficking. The project brings together scholars and researchers from various backgrounds to highlight the different aspects of human trafficking. The projects aim is to improve evidence-based research to inform effective policies that center around equality, human dignity, and justice.
Chuang is credited with several publications that have appeared in prestigious journals such as the UCLA Law Review, the American Journal of International Law, and the University of Pennsylvania Law Review.
21.Case Western Reserve University
Case Western Reserve University’s School of Law offers a Human Trafficking Program. Since 2015 the program has received funding from the Ohio Attorney General. In 2017 the program was a finalist in the “Liberator Awards” presented by S.O.A.P. (“Save Our Adolescents form Prostitution“).
The program provides
“direct services to adult and juvenile victims of human trafficking and other sex crimes”.
Additionally, the program strives to:
- Represent survivors of human trafficking in court
- Provide education
- Engage in effective outreach to communities of high risk individuals
The program offers an annual Human Trafficking Symposium with key note speakers and small group sessions. The goal of the Symposium is to develop interdisciplinary strategies to help the Northeast Ohio area.
Third year law students in the Human Trafficking Program are required to participate in the Health and Human Trafficking Clinic. This allows students to gain hands-on experience with representing clients and participate in community outreach.
Both second and third year law students in the Program have access to the Human Trafficking Lab. Some of the questions the lab explores are:
- Is it useful to think of trafficking as modern slavery
- Should sex work be legalized
- Why are we failing to prosecute perpetrators
22.University of Washington
The University of Washington Alene Moris Women’s Center has the broad vision of using education and advocacy to eliminate gender-based barriers. The Center runs several programs including:
- Alene Moris National Education for Women’s Leadership
- Life Long Learning
- Violence Prevention and Gender Equity
- Anti-Human Trafficking Research & Policy Development
The University of Washington Alene Moris Women’s Center was the first center to frame human trafficking as a public health crisis, and through innovative conferences, it led the efforts to convene the nation’s first state task force against trafficking of human beings. In partnership with then State Representative Velma Veloria, the Center helped create the legislation to criminalize human trafficking in Washington State, the first state in the nation to do so. Since then, all 50 States have enacted criminal penalties for traffickers.
The Anti-Human Trafficking Research, Education, and Policy Development program is committed to collaborating with campus scholars, elected officials and community advocates to increase public awareness, advise state and local policy development, and research the contexts and consequences of forced labor, including sex trafficking. The Center continually creates coalitions of all stakeholders working to eradicate this egregious human rights violations.
The program emphasizes research and the need for public awareness of the human trafficking issue. The program provides detailed statistical information, such as:
- 40 million people estimated to be victims of forced labor globally
- 71% of human trafficking victims are women and girls
- A list of common industries vulnerable to human trafficking
- 24-hour assistance hotline contact information
The Anti-Human Trafficking program offers collaborative workshops and speaking engagements. Some of the past events include:
- 21st Century Slavery: Human Trafficking and Sexual Tourism of APIs, UW
- Human Trafficking and Immigration Reform Workshop, UW
- Washington State Task Force Against Trafficking of Persons
- Washington Women’s Foundation Human Trafficking Forum
To recognize its efforts, the Washington State Senate, House, and King County Council all honored the UW Alene Moris Women’s Centers’ 25+ years of anti-human trafficking work under Dr. Sutapa Basu’s leadership – each with a declaration marking the Center’s tremendous role in the local and national anti-human trafficking movement.
23.University of Baltimore
The University of Baltimore’s School of Law manages the Human Trafficking Prevention project. Professor Jessica Emerson is the director for the project. The focus of the project is on human trafficking victims who have been prosecuted for their actions made under duress. There is a growing awareness of this issue.
The Human Trafficking Prevention project
“provides pro-bono legal services to individuals who have criminal records stemming from an involvement in the commercial sex industry”.
The project is attempting to minimize the criminal consequences upon victims who are already experiencing trauma. A criminal conviction can lead to a loss of, or an inability to obtain safe housing, employment, and other services.
The Human Trafficking Prevention project fills six credits of clinic work for law students, and allows student attorneys to gain real-world experience.
Students have the opportunity to:
- Practice advocacy skills
- Develop strong, trauma-informed client interviewing skills
- Make connection in the criminal justice community
- Improve legal writing and oratory skills
Student applicants to the project are selected by a lottery system. Students interested in this program should know that the clinic requires a time commitment of approximately 20 hours per week.
24.University of Maryland, Baltimore
The School of Social Work at the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB) maintains the Maryland Human Trafficking Initiative for Children & Youth (MHTI). The MHTI program is a collaborative effort to improve the state wide response to human trafficking. This three-year coordination project received its initial funding from the Department of Justice.
The MHTI program is run out of the School of Social Work’s Ruth Young Center for Families and Children. Several other organizations have partnered with the University of Maryland, Baltimore in this initiative, including:
- The Maryland Human Trafficking Task Force
- Governor’s Office on Crime Control and Prevention
- Maryland Departments of Human Resources and Juvenile Services
- U.S. Attorney’s Office
- SAFE Center
- TurnAround, Inc.
- Healthy Teen Network,
- Baltimore Child Abuse Center
The goals of the program are to:
- Improve training of professionals most likely to come into contact with a trafficking victim
- Investigate trafficking cases with more coherent and multidisciplinary teams
- Improve services, including nonprofit organizations, that can provide a holistic approach to healing a traumatized victim
25.Loyola University at New Orleans
New Orleans, LA
Loyola University’s Modern Slavery Research Project is a ground breaking study. To produce this project, researchers from Loyola worked in conjunction with the University of Pennsylvania’s Field Center for Children’s Policy, Practice and Research, along with Covenant House International. Covenant House is a non-profit that provides safety and housing for youth who are at risk for homelessness.
This project, directed by Laura Murphy, involved researchers interviewing 641 youth who were clients of Covenant House. The youth were between 17 and 24 years old. A screening tool, the “Human Trafficking Interview and Assessment Measure” (HTIAM-14) was used by researchers to standardize interviews.
Findings from the Project include:
- Of the 641 interviewees, 92 had been trafficked for sex
- 30 interviewees who identified as LGBTQ were trafficked for sex
- 193 of all youth interviewed had engaged in some way in the sex trade at some point
- 52 interviewees has been labor trafficked, most of which was in relation to drug trafficking work
- 22 interviewees were trafficked for both sex and labor
- The majority of trafficked youth (91%) reported being offered a fraudulent work opportunity that turned into trafficking
Economic factors emerged as one of the primary indicators of vulnerability to the trafficking industry. Identifying as LGBTQ or aging out of the foster care system were also strong indicators of vulnerability.
The study recommends a four-pronged approach to fighting back:
- Confidential Identification
- Specialized Interventions
26.University of Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania’s Field Center for Children’s Policy, Practice and Research, with Managing Director Johanna Greeson, produced ground breaking research on the correlation between homeless youth and human trafficking. They worked in conjunction with Covenant House International and Loyola University New Orleans. Covenant House is a non-profit that helps with providing housing to youth who are otherwise at risk of homelessness.
One of the largest studies to date, researchers interviewed over 900 youth between the ages of 17 and 25, who stayed at the Covenant House. The researchers focused on the Philadelphia, Washington, D.C., and Phoenix areas. In addition to homelessness, welfare-related factors were taken into consideration including any history of abuse, and out-of-home placement.
- Of the homeless youth interviewed, 20 percent were victims of some form of trafficking
- 41 percent were approached on their first night of homelessness
- 17 percent experienced sex trafficking and six percent experienced labor trafficking
- 14 percent participated in trafficking to meet basic survival needs of food or housing
- 95 percent had a past history of child abuse or neglect
- 41 percent of sex trafficking victims had at least one out-of-home placement experience
- 67 percent of sex trafficking victims did not graduate high school
- Over half were homeless at some point before the age of 18
- A large portion of sex trafficking victims identified as LGBTQ
Relevant Degrees for Fighting Human Trafficking
Digital Forensics assists in tracing, finding, and prosecuting human traffickers. It is Digital Forensic Analysts who find the hidden data and online presence of these traffickers. Digital Forensics extracts and makes sense of digital data from traffickers, such as you would find on computers and hard drives. These data are often crucial for successful prosecutions, and for finding new trafficking operations.
Forensic Accounting follows the money. Human trafficking is at bottom a for-profit criminal enterprise, where people are the commodity, and money changes hands from buyers to sellers. These buyers may be buying humans for sex or labor, or organ harvesting. Forensic Accounting detects the criminal activity in these financial transactions, and assists law enforcement in prosecutions.
See our Online Forensic Science Degrees.
See our 10 Best Forensic Science Colleges.
See our 15 Best IT Security Colleges Online.
Criminal Justice degrees provide the necessary entry into law enforcement. From there, graduates can focus on working at the relevant departments in federal and local government, such as:
- Police Departments
- Department of Homeland Security
- Bureau of Justice Assistance
- U.S. Customs and Border Protection
- U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
See our Online Criminal Justice Degrees
A degree in Homeland Security enables graduates to work in different capacities for the Department of Homeland Security. This department was formed after the hijacked planes attacked U.S. soil on 9/11/2001. The Department of Homeland Security is the federal agency responsible for fighting human trafficking. Homeland Security has careers in law enforcement in these domains:
- U.S. Customs and Border Protection
- Federal Law Enforcement Training Center
- U.S. Secret Service
- U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
- Federal Protective Service
See our Online Homeland Security Degrees.
International Political Science majors in particular are pertinent for understanding and fighting international human trafficking operations. Degrees in Political Science help students understand how political systems work, whether democratic, socialistic, communistic, etc.
This includes the means by which international trade is conducted, and whether borders are porous and can allow for trafficking, and how to stop it using political means. An example of this would be the southern border of the U.S., and whether the wall that’s being built will have any deterrence on human trafficking with Mexico.
See our Best Online Humanities Degrees for Careers article for the relevant Political Science degree information.
Human Rights Studies
Human Rights degrees study the national and international aspects of rights as given to their respective citizens. A Human Rights approach to human trafficking is ensuring that the victims’ rights are upheld in the process of the victims’ recovery, and prosecuting This can include advocating for the rights of rescued children. One such right that may need bolstering a the victims’ right not to be involved more than they want to be in the criminal prosecutions of the traffickers.
A degree in Social Work can allow graduates to work in a Social Work setting for those who have survived human trafficking. Helping to get them back on their feet and stabilized in society again. This may also involve working with Child Protective Services and helping children to get out of abusive situations and potentially prevent trafficking. Working with children who’ve been rescued from traffickers, such as getting children adjusted after going home, may also be a key duty. It may also involve getting rescued children placed into a foster families.
See our Online Degrees in Social Work.
See our 20 Best Online Social Work Colleges.
According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, a Public Health approach to fighting human trafficking:
“[R]ecognizes the social and economic determinants of health and well-being that may lead to the crisis moment of trafficking. Interventions would go beyond the criminal justice and social service response and incorporate prevention strategies based on needs of specific populations. While human trafficking can impact anyone, some populations are more vulnerable to human trafficking due to experience of prior violence, stigma, and disconnection.”U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
A degree in Public Health allows for the recognition of patterns in targeted victims. What is the socio-economic background of those most trafficked? A Public Health degree helps to understand things such as the predominant gender, age group, location, and other demographics of those most at risk of being trafficked.
Law degrees are relevant to fighting human trafficking in a number of ways. A lawyer may wish to work as a prosecutor of traffickers. Another option that a law degree may afford is getting into politics and effecting laws that fight human trafficking. A degree in International Law is especially relevant to understanding and fighting international human trafficking.
See our Law School rankings:
Department of Homeland Security Phone Numbers for Reporting Human Trafficking:
Federal Law Enforcement: 1-866-347-2423
National Human Trafficking Hotline: 1-888-373-7888
U.S. Government Agencies:
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (I.C.E.) is a federal government agency that is, as the name implies, responsible for enforcing immigration and customs policing and policies. As part of these duties, they are heavily involved in combating human trafficking in the U.S.
Here is I.C.E.’s Most Wanted Human Traffickers List. Please call the national hotline for I.C.E. is 1-866-DHS-2-ICE (TTY for hearing impaired: 802-872-6196) if you have information about human trafficking.
Internet Crimes Against Children Task Force The Internet Crimes Against Children Task Force consists of 61 task forces across the U.S., comprised of over 4,500 individual federal, state, local law enforcement, and prosecutorial agencies. Their purpose is to protect children from abuse that may occur through the internet. To this end they train law enforcement, partner with similar groups, and work to prosecute violators.
International Labour Organization ILO is part of the United Nations, and consists of 187 member states. The ILO stated purpose is:
“[T]o set labour standards, develop policies and devise programmes promoting decent work for all women and men.”
To this end, they have implemented the Forced Labor Protocol, which member states are obliged to adopt and enforce.
Operation Underground Railroad O.U.R. is a non-profit organization started in the U.S., whose mission is to combat human trafficking, at home and abroad. Led by Tim Ballard, an American private citizen, O.U.R. has domestic and international offices. O.U.R. partners and works in tandem with American and foreign nations to combat human trafficking.
U.S. Government Investments to Combat Human Trafficking:
Human Trafficking Statistics:
Human Trafficking Statistics according to the U.S. Customs and Border Protection as of 2016:
- Estimated 40.3 million people are in modern slavery:
- 24.9 million in forced labor, working in these capacities:
- 16 million people are exploited in the private sector such as domestic work, construction or agriculture
- 4.8 million persons in forced sexual exploitation
- 4 million persons in forced labor imposed by state authorities
- 15.4 million in forced marriage
- 24.9 million in forced labor, working in these capacities:
- 5.4 victims of modern slavery for every 1,000 people in the world
- 1 in 4 victims of modern slavery are children
- Women and girls are disproportionately affected by forced labor, accounting for 99% of victims in the commercial sex industry, and 58% in other sectors
This is a ranking of the best Artificial Intelligence journals in the United States.
Where do advances in research of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning get published? In various professional Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning journals. These are the repositories of AI advancements and a window into the current state-of-the-art, and in large part its knowledge base.
Papers in AI journals get cited by other AI researchers and publications. And so the new findings and new research is shared and built upon, which contributes to the pace of AI advancements. Which in turn accelerates the speed in further Artificial Intelligence research, advancements, and capabilities.
Artificial Intelligence is the future, but it’s also the ‘now’. Artificial Intelligence investments broke records in 2019 for the most money invested by venture capitalists. More and more businesses are benefitting from AI, Machine Learning, and Big Data to make sense of business decisions and opportunities.
To make this ranking of the Best Artificial Intelligence Journals, we looked at the h-index for these journals, taken for each journal as a whole. This was done by consulting with Scimago Journal and Country Rank. We selected Computer Science: Artificial Intelligence: United States: Journals: 2019. We then sorted the journals by h-index score.
For more information about h-index and how it’s used as a scoring and ranking system at SuccessfulStudent.org.
The Best Artificial Intelligence Journals
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (TPAMI) publishes articles on all traditional areas of computer vision and image understanding, all traditional areas of pattern analysis and recognition, and selected areas of machine intelligence, with a particular emphasis on machine learning for pattern analysis.
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems publishes technical articles that deal with the theory, design, and applications of neural networks and related learning systems.
The Journal of Machine Learning Research (JMLR) provides an international forum for the publication of scholarly articles in all areas of machine learning.
The JMLR features articles about experimental or theoretical studies in Machine Learning. New insights are published pertaining to the design and behavior of learning in intelligent systems.
JMLR papers also give accounts of the application of existing techniques, including their strengths and weaknesses, and more insights into what works and why.
IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems is devoted to the theory, design and applications of fuzzy systems, ranging from hardware to software, with an emphasis on engineering applications.
IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems is published by the IEEE Computational Intelligence Society, alongside several other journals in AI, including the recently launched IEEE Transactions on Artificial Intelligence.
The first scholarly publication on robotics research, the International Journal of Robotics Research features research papers and articles, reviews, and editorials on ground-breaking trends issues, technical developments, and theories in robotics.
The publication includes current research on robotics research such as applied mathematics, artificial intelligence and electrical and mechanical engineering.
The Journal of Memory and Language contributes to the formulation of scientific issues and theories in the areas of language comprehension and production, memory, and cognitive processes.
The journal focuses on research articles that provide new theoretical insights based on an empirical foundation with an emphasis on linguistics, neuropsychology, and aspects of memory and language processing.
The Journal of the ACM includes articles on the broadly construed principles of computer science.
Its editorial board focuses on areas such as computer-aided verification, artificial intelligence, computational biology, machine learning and computational learning theory, and information theory, among other related topics.
IEEE Intelligent Systems is designed for users, managers, developers, researchers and purchasers interested in intelligent systems and artificial intelligence, with an emphasis on applications
The publication focuses on current practice and experience, as well as new ideas with near-future uses.
IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems focuses on the field of human-machine systems
The journal includes articles on human systems and human organizational interactions including cognitive ergonomics, system test and evaluation, and human information processing concerns in systems and organizations.
Cognitive Psychology specializes in extensive articles that have a major impact on cognitive theory and provide new theoretical advances
Its research areas include artificial intelligence, linguistics, developmental psychology, social psychology and neurophysiology.
The Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research is dedicated to sharing research results with the global artificial intelligence community.
The journal’s scope encompasses all areas of AI, including agents and multi-agent systems, automated reasoning, constraint processing and search, knowledge representation, machine learning, natural language, planning and scheduling, robotics and vision, and uncertainty in AI.
Cognitive Science publishes articles on topics such as knowledge representation, natural language understanding, inference, memory processes, problem solving, learning, planning, perception, connectionism, brain theory, motor control, intentional systems, and more
Designed for researchers in cognitive science and its related fields, Cognitive Science gives priority to research reports written for a multidisciplinary audience.
Computational Linguistics is the longest-running publication devoted to the computational and mathematical properties of language and the design and analysis of natural language processing systems
The highly regarded quarterly provides the latest information to university and industry linguists, computational linguists, artificial intelligence and machine learning investigators, cognitive scientists, speech specialists, and philosophers.
Perception, a traditional print journal, covers all areas of the perceptual sciences with a strong historical emphasis on perceptual illusions
The peer-reviewed, scientific journal specializes in the psychology of vision and perception.
Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing is designed for researchers, engineers, educators, managers, programmers, and users of computers who have interests in parallel processing or distributed computing
The journal’s research areas include architecture for emerging technologies, interconnection network, innovative computer architectures, and parallel and distributed programming models, among others.
The International Journal of Intelligent Systems serves as a forum for those interested in theories based on intelligent systems construction.
Designed for computer scientists, logicians, information scientists, engineers and more, the journal uses charts and illustrations to demonstrate ground-breaking issues and encourages readers to share their thoughts and experiences.
17. AI Magazine
AI Magazine helps the AI community stay abreast of new research and literature across the field of artificial intelligence
The quarterly publication features timely, feature-length articles, crafted to be clear enough to permit specialists to review work outside their particular area of expertise. AAAI has recently launched an interactive version of the magazine accessible at InteractiveAIMag.org
Digital Signal Processing: A Review Journal is one of the oldest and most established journals in the field of signal processing and aims to be the most innovative. The Journal provides a platform for the publication of ground-breaking research in signal processing with both academic and industrial appeal
The journal emphasizes statistical signal processing methodology such as Bayesian signal processing, and encourages articles on emerging applications of signal processing such as machine learning, systems biology and computational biology, autonomous vehicles, and human-computer interaction and intelligent user interfaces, among other related topics.
The Journal of Scheduling provides a global forum for the publication of all forms of scheduling research. Each issue features new and novel techniques, applications, theoretical issues, and innovative approaches to problems.
The journal is designed to help readers in computer science, artificial intelligence, discrete mathematics, operational research, engineering, construction, distribution, manufacturing, transportation, aerospace, and more.
The IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine features peer-reviewed articles that present emerging novel discoveries, insights, or tutorial surveys in all areas of computational intelligence design and applications. The journal focuses on applications-oriented developments, industrial implementations, design tools, technology reviews, computational intelligence education, and applied research.
These 10 universities are contributing to solving the Coronavirus pandemic in various important ways.
- Treatments (vaccines, therapeutics)
- Testing and Diagnostics
- Contagion Mapping
- Contact Tracing
- Data Collection and Analyses
Certain universities are researching and developing solutions in many of these domains at the same time. All of these areas are important and work together synergistically toward the common goal of defeating the virus and its effects on the world as much as can be achieved.
- Harvard University: Vaccines
- University of Oxford: Vaccines
- The Eli & Edythe Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard: Diagnostics, Clinical Testing, Therapeutics, Surveillance, Disease Biology, Data & Portals, Videos and Seminars
- Colorado State University, Fort Collins: 25+ Projects, including Vaccines
- Johns Hopkins University: Interactive Contagion Mapping, Testing Results Numbers, Free Online Contact Tracing Class
- University of Georgia: Vaccines
- University of Michigan, Ann Arbor: Vaccines, Covid-19 Research Index
- University of Montana: Vaccines
- University of Pittsburgh: Vaccines
- University of Wisconsin-Madison: Vaccines
- 10 Best Master’s Degree Programs in Public Health
- 15 Best Drug Design Colleges
- 10 Best Bachelor’s in Biomedical Engineering Programs
Best Universities Solving the Coronavirus Pandemic
Developing an Age-Specific Vaccine for the Elderly
The Harvard Medical School is working with Boston’s Children’s Hospital to develop a vaccine intended to protect the elderly population in particular from coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The Division of Infectious Diseases at Boston Children’s Hospital has a Precision Vaccines Program (PVP), which is working in collaboration with the researchers at Harvard. The PVP works with academia, governmental bodies and industry members internationally to develop vaccines.
The lab, using proprietary patented technology, develops human tissues outside of any living human. It then adds white blood cells from people of different ages to the tissue, and analyzes the results of how these immune systems react by age. It’s a way to make age-specific, tailor made vaccines.
Developing a Vaccine for the World
Harvard’s Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, housed at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, also develops vaccines. They’re working with Johnson & Johnson to develop a vaccine for mass inoculation. Johnson and Johnson plans to manufacture over a billion doses of the vaccine by sometime in 2021.
The first and second parts of the clinical trials in humans will test the vaccine, and a placebo, in two age groups: 18 – 55 years old, and 65+. The trials will be done on 1,045 people from the U.S. and Belgium. If all goes well, the third and final trial phase will begin in September, 2020. This vaccine is being touted as one of the top five contenders from the Trump Administration to work, out of about 125 serious vaccine efforts across the world.
2.University of Oxford
Developing a Vaccine for the World
The University of Oxford, the oldest university in the English-speaking world, has teamed with biopharmaceutical company AstraZeneca to create and distribute a vaccine for the Coronavirus. AstraZeneca is based in neighboring Cambridge, UK.
The goal is to prevent cases of COVID-19 on a global scale, by administering 2 billion shots per year by 2021. The potential vaccine is known as AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19). This vaccine is being developed by the Jenner Institute and the Oxford Vaccine Group, both at the University of Oxford. The role that AstraZeneca would play would be to develop, manufacture, and distribute the vaccine worldwide.
How would the vaccine work?
The coronavirus is named “corona” because it resembles the spikes on a crown. Corona means crown. The virus uses its spike protein to gain entry into human cells by binding to the ACE2 receptors on our cells. Once inside the cell the coronavirus causes infection.
The vaccination will train the human immune system to attack and destroy any virus that produces the surface spike protein, before entering human cells, and thereby prevent infections. The way it’s training the immune system to recognize this spikey protein, is by adding genetic material and using a weakened version of another coronavirus, the common cold. The combination of genetic material that produces the spikes in the SARS-CoV-2, along with the common cold, it is believed will train our immune systems to attack the coronavirus before it ever gets started infecting our cells.
Early human clinical trials have been promising.
3.The Eli & Edythe Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard
At the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, directed by Eric Lander, two labs teamed up to develop a new highly effective diagnostic tool. An application-focused virus lab and a technology development lab are working together to create a platform that would allow for a quick and accurate diagnosis of every virus that causes illness. The result so far is called: Combinatorial Arrayed Reactions for Multiplexed Evaluation of Nucleic acids (CARMEN).
This technology was successful at providing same day diagnostic results to patient samples. The team is now working on making CARMEN available on a larger scale.
The Broad Institute’s areas of research and available resources for fighting Covid-19:
- Clinical Testing and Processing
- Diagnostic and Therapeutics Research and Development
- Epidemiology and Surveillance
- Data and Portals
- Disease Biology
- Videos and Seminars
4.Colorado State University, Fort Collins
Fort Collins, CO
At Colorado State University there are over 100 investigators working on more than 25 projects related to Covid-19. These projects include studying the plasma of those recovered from the virus, using individually approved treatments in a cocktail form, and developing a vaccine.
The Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology in particular is playing a key role in vaccine research. Head of the Department, Gregg Dean, is leading a research team using “a genetically modified form of the common probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus to avert infection”.
While Professor Mary Jackson, of the same Department, is leading a research project adapting the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin or BCG vaccine.
The BCG vaccine is widely used in protecting against tuberculosis. First formulated in 1921, doctors have administered over five billion doses of the vaccine to both infants and adults. The initial dose provides approximately 10 years immunity. It is easily produced and transported without refrigeration. The vaccine has been shown to also provide immunity to Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans or Yellow Fever virus.
The BCG vaccine is not common in the U.S. due to the low incidences of tuberculosis.
The research team is attempting to pick “pieces of proteins from the virus that are known to elicit an immune response against COVID-19 and trying to have BCG express them at its surface”. The hope is that the vaccine would produce neutralizing antibodies. These antibodies would then block Covid-19 from entering the cells.
5.Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University’s Center for Systems Science and Engineering has created a Coronavirus Dashboard for tracking the COVID-19 pandemic.
This interactive dashboard provides mapping for tracking the spread of the coronavirus at the county level in the US and sub-nationally for many other countries. It also provides numbers of infected, mortality rates and recovery rates. The map shows the world trends of the coronavirus, and a closer look into the trends in the USA in particular. You can see the numbers of cases, deaths and recoveries per state in the US.
There is also a feature to track testing trends per state, which gives daily, weekly, and total number of tests and their positive or negative results. Additionally, there are multiple ongoing data analysis efforts by the team behind the Coronavirus Resource Center which take a deeper dive into testing data, as well as other economic and social drivers of the outbreak case and death data.
Johns Hopkins has also teamed with Coursera and now offers an online class created by the Bloomberg School of Public Health to teach contact-tracing. This free, six hour class is now available, and is taken fully online. Students will learn the history of SARS-CoV-2, how it’s transmitted, how to contact-trace, when to quarantine, and other valuable skills. This class doesn’t require any prerequisites, and is available to anyone with a high school diploma or equivalent.
6.University of Georgia
The College of Veterinary Medicine is heading the vaccine research for Covid-19 at the University of Georgia. The College manages the Center for Vaccines and Immunology. Through this Center, eminent scholars and researchers such as Biao He and Ted M. Ross lead teams in developing vaccine candidates.
One research group, who was already in the process of developing a vaccine for MERS-CoV, easily transitioned to focusing on SARS-CoV-2. The group is using the MERS vaccine research as a starting point for the Covid-19 vaccine research. Currently, the vaccine is working off of a viral delivery platform. The vaccine would use a modified version of the virus that causes kennel cough in dogs, parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5).
The team is using this modified version of PIV5 ‘due to its safety in humans’. Dog owners especially have been safely exposed to PIV5 if their dogs have been immunized.
The modified PIV5 virus produces proteins also found in corona viruses. The hope is that by exposing the body to the proteins in PIV5, the body can easily mount a defense against the MERS spike proteins produced by the modified virus.
Researchers are hopeful that the vaccine will be approved by the FDA by the end of the year.
7.University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Ann Arbor, MI
Vaccines, Covid-19 Research Index
The University of Michigan has organized Covid-19 research across multiple disciplines.
The university has collected information regarding various research projects into the Covid-19 Research Index.
Students and professors strive to include all ongoing projects (in various states of completeness). The projects range in scope from basic laboratory research unrelated to therapeutics to stress and mental health during Covid-19. Some sample projects include:
- SARS-CoV-2 Sequencing
- Vaccination against COVID-19
- USA Pediatric COVID-19 Registry
- Healthcare Workforce Capacity
- Assessing PPE recycling approaches
- Social Wellbeing during COVID-19
- Public Policy Analysis and Impact
Additional information can be found at the Research Home Page. Here professionals find further resources regarding:
- Research Re-Engagement – How to return to research while following state guidelines
- Covid-19 Funding Opportunities
- Covid-19 Research Publications
- Covid-19 Research News
8.University of Montana
Jay Evans is the director of the Center for Translational Medicine at the University of Montana (UM). His interdisciplinary research team consists of professors from a variety of departments. The team is working on the discovery and development of novel vaccine adjuvants and delivery systems. Adjuvants are ‘chemicals that help vaccines work more effectively and safely’. The 45 member team has NIH funded projects working on vaccines or treatments for influenza, whooping cough, pseudomonas, tuberculosis, Lyme disease, and opioid addiction.
This experience positioned Evans’ team to be at the forefront of research for the Covid-19 pandemic.
In February, Evans’ team was contacted by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to start research on a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. To help with research expenditures, the NIH granted $2.5 million dollars to UM to accelerate discovery and development of a COVID-19 vaccine candidate.
The team is working in partnership with Dr. Florian Krammer and Dr. Adolfo Garcia-Sastre from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City.
9.University of Pittsburgh
On April 2nd, the EBioMedicine magazine published a paper on the Pittsburgh Coronavirus Vaccine (PittCoVacc) which is being developed by the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and its clinical partner UPMC.
The research team has seen success with PittCoVacc in clinical trials on mice, whose immune system produced “antibodies specific to SARS-CoV-2 at quantities thought to be sufficient for neutralizing the virus.”
PittCoVacc involves a new injection method called a microneedle array, which is a small Band-Aid-like patch that is applied directly to the skin. The patch contains 400 tiny needles made of sugar and protein pieces that dissolve into the skin where the immune system response is the strongest. The production of the microneedle array patches is easy to scale up to mass quantities. The patches do not require refrigeration and can be stored at room temperature until needed.
Researchers are now applying for approval from the FDA to move into the first phase of human clinical trials.
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases and National Cancer Institute provided funding for this research.
10.University of Wisconsin-Madison
The University of Wisconsin-Madison has partnered with FluGen and Bharat Biotech, two vaccine companies. The vaccine in progress is called CoroFlu.
The basis for the CoroFlu vaccine is a flu vaccine candidate named M2SR. Virologists Yoshihiro Kawaoka and Gabriele Neumann developed M2SR as a ‘self-limiting version of the influenza virus’. The research team plans to insert the gene sequence from Covid-19 into the M2SR vaccine. The hope is that this will induce immunity to Covid-19.
By itself, the M2SR vaccine has shown to be safe and well tolerated in several clinical trials involving hundreds of subjects. It lacks the M2 gene of the flu virus ‘which restricts the virus to undergoing only a single round of replication in cells’. This means that the flu virus can enter cells but not leave, triggering an immune response. But since the virus cannot leave the cell to duplicate the host does not get sick.
The vaccine will be administered intra-nasally, mimicking the natural infection route.
UW-Madison’s Influenza Research Institute will host the animal model trials of the CoroFlu vaccine. The Institute is a designated Biosafety Level 3 Agriculture facility. Initial animal trials are expected to take three to six months. Researchers hope to move into human trials by the fall of 2020.
These universities are not ranked in any order of importance or ranked by any other factor. This list is a collection of 10 universities that are contributing in vital ways to solving the Coronavirus pandemic.
Academic influence is an objective way of making sense of the influential nature of academic authors. This influence can be extended to groups of authors, degree programs, academic departments, colleges, universities, states, and countries as a whole. This influence is established by something called the h-index (named after Jorge E. Hirsch, professor of Physics at the University of California, San Diego, who developed the h-index in 2005).
What is the h-index?
An h-index is a number assigned to an author to represent his or her publishing productivity in hard numbers, but also their influence among other academics by the hard numbers of citations to their publications.
How is the h-index calculated?
The h-index is an author’s number of publications, which also individually reach the same number in citations. So if an academic author has published 20 papers, and each of those 20 papers has been cited 20 times, then the author has an h-index number of 20.
Calculating the h-index in this two-pronged approach, ensures that the author is productive in publishing, but also that the publications are of high enough quality to be cited.
This is an understandable way of measuring the academic influence of scientists, academics and academies. For example, publishing only a few papers (though they be cited many times) means that the author (or by extension the university) isn’t very productive in publishing papers. And publishing many papers that are hardly ever cited, means that the author (or university) isn’t influential with regard to others authors citing their work. It’s an objective number that conveys quantity and quality, productivity and influence.
It also protects against an imbalance of publications and their citations giving a misleading overall picture. Imagine an author, having published 20 papers, with the first paper receiving 1,000 citations. However, the remaining 19 papers received at most only three citations. If the h-index included all of the citations taken together, it could appear that this author had many citations across all papers.
The difficulty that this kind of scoring metric presents to authors, is that the more prolific the author, the more citations he or she must illicit to keep the h-index score commensurate with their publication output. If an author has published 60 papers, each one of those must have a minimum of 60 citations to get an h-index of 60. But at the same time this raises the bar to make the publications perform at the highest levels.
A given author’s h-index may differ between different databases, given that the respective databases rely on their internal citation numbers.School can be made easier. Follow these 7 Characteristics of Successful Students to excel in school. These strategies can be used in high school and college (at the undergraduate and graduate levels). These skills translate to better understanding, being persuasive, increasing comprehension, and being more articulate in writing. As you go through grade school and into college, you will be taught a large variety of subjects, such as Math, English, History, etc. What you’re usually not taught, is how to be a successful student. The skills to run the gamut of education should’ve also been taught to you by your educators; instead of teachers and professors expecting you to know it on your own. These are the most salient points for being a successful student, which will make your life much easier, and may produce academic scholarships if your academics merit it. A lot of these skills hang together. As you improve in one or more, you improve in related ones.
7 Characteristics of Successful Students
1. Use “The Deep Approach to Learning”Find a subject that you’re actually interested in studying. This will facilitate what’s called the “Deep Approach To Learning”. This term was coined by Dr. Ken Bain in his book What The Best College Students Do. It turns out that having a genuine interest in the subject will mean that students like you will learn more and score higher in tests.
2. Stop Wasting Time and Learn to Manage It
- Use a Calendar App and Set Alerts
- Set a schedule
3. Supercharge Your VocabularyThe best way to improve your vocabulary:
- Read. And read books that challenge you, because those are the books that elevate your understanding.
- Get a dictionary app, and use it every time you encounter a word that you don’t know.
- Top 10 Big Words on Campus. These are the most searched for words by students in college. Professors use these words, and students aren’t sure what they mean, so the searches for these words spike on dictionary apps and dictionary websites each school year.
- Learn words such as malfeasance, avarice, albeit, auspices, rubric, and corpus, and learn to actually use them in conversation.
4. Develop These Reading StrategiesSchool requires reading. Reading can be your friend. Developing a facility for reading will be one of the most important aspects of your intellectual life, in school and after.
- Read at short intervals. If it’s academic writing, allot about 45 minutes to reading non-stop, and then take a break. Your brain will need a chance to assimilate what you’ve read.
- Summarize what you’ve just read. When you summarize, you formulate what you’ve read into your own words. This tactic is a test to make sure that you understand the material, and can recite it from memory. This is a way to ensure that the content is understood and remembered.
- Rote memorization isn’t always helpful when it comes to remembering content with meaning. Rote memorization is helpful when it’s something like the Greek Alphabet, which of course isn’t a concept or meaning in itself, but rather a set of characters which is necessary to learn before reading Greek. The meaning will come as a result.
- Read Mortimer J. Adler’s book called How to Read a Book.
- Read old books. This will give you an advantage, because almost everyone is reading modern books. Old books take us out of the modern world of assumptions and things we, rightly or wrongly, take for granted as truth. They take us out of the modern zeitgeist. In taking us out of the modern set of assumptions and worldview, we can step into another point-of-view, and from there have a basis to compare the modern world’s set of assumptions. Understanding another worldview will teach us to question things that we assume and take for granted (and have often times uncritically consider true).
5. Learning to Write by Learning to ThinkWriting is learning to think. It takes the idea and makes it concrete, or at least more solid. It clears the room of smoke that was a hazy set of unarticulated ideas in your mind. Think of writing as an exercise in learning to think. Not as an exercise in writing out thoughts. People who have lost loved ones and are grieving are often told to journal, because writing helps them sort through their grief. It does that by having to face and specifically articulate their thoughts, as uncomfortable as they may be. And what they find is that they’re comforted in doing so. The exercise is cathartic and therapeutic. Why? Because writing requires self-assessment, and therefore fosters clearer thinking when the vague thoughts and notions have to be articulated in specific words. This word and not that word. So the things that grieving people are not wanting to face, such as a lifetime without their loved one, has to be not only faced, but also articulated and described. An avenue of hope and better understanding will emerge in doing so. Whenever you face the thing you don’t want to face, it shrinks and you grow. The exercise teaches you how to sift through the unarticulated haze of thoughts in your mind (especially for people who are grieving), and turn it into meaningful and understandable order. Use the Hemingway app to check your work. The Hemingway app is helpful because it detects difficult language and helps you to parse it down into more understandable sentences.
6. Rest, and Do Something MindlessThe brain learns best by being exposed to whatever it is, such as reading, math, music lessons, etc., in fairly short intervals (about 45 minutes), and then needs time to rest. In its rest it assimilates the new information. Think about the assimilating as happening in the background, while you’re doing the mindless thing or resting. It updates like an app on your phone while you’re busy doing other things with it, like checking email. This also ties in to the necessity of good and restful sleep. There is a lymphatic system equivalent in your brain that washes your brain clean whenever you sleep and clears it of toxins. Resting is just as important as studying. Get on a good schedule of sleeping and waking up at the same time every morning.
7. Learn How to Argue and Persuade, and Avoid Logical FallaciesYou’ll probably have to make a lot of arguments in college, in papers, and especially if you pursue graduate education. See our article on this subject called The Art of Argument: Persuasion and Logical Fallacies. This article teaches the three tenets of making a persuasive argument:
- Ethos: Ethos is the character of the speaker. Your character, which establishes why the listener should attend to what you have to say, needs to be established right up front.
- Pathos: Pathos is the emotional appeal to the listener. This establishes the importance of the argument and why the listener ought to care.
- Logos: Logos is the content of the argument itself.
7 Characteristics of Successful Students
Successful Student has made a how-to guide for students to learn the art of argument; how to recognize and avoid logical fallacies. There are many formal and informal logical fallacies in the world of argumentation. We have compiled 10 common logical fallacies that every student should know. Learning to avoid logical fallacies is required to avoid their many pitfalls. Familiarize yourself with them and improve your debate skills and logical coherency.
Logical Fallacies | Frequently Asked Questions
- What are examples of logical fallacies?
- How would you explain a logical fallacy?
- What makes a logical fallacy?
- Is generalization a logical fallacy?
- What is a fallacy example?
- Why logical fallacies are important?
- How do you respond to a logical fallacy?
- Why should you avoid logical fallacies?
- What is the best way to prevent making logical fallacies in arguments?
The Top 10 Logical Fallacies to Avoid in Arguments
Other argument types that aren’t necessarily fallacious:
1. Slippery Slope:I’m not including the Slippery Slope argument type in this list of fallacies, because it’s not always fallacious. There are perfectly true instances where the person making the slippery slope argument has the foresight to see the future consequences of the first action and correctly predicts what results at the bottom of the slope. There are instances in which the slippery slope argument is used that turn out to be factually wrong, but as an argument type in and of itself, there is nothing in the structure of the argument that makes it necessarily fallacious. Let’s look at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy’s entry on the Slippery Slope:
“15. The fallacy of the slippery slope generally takes the form that from a given starting point one can by a series of incremental inferences arrive at an undesirable conclusion, and because of this unwanted result, the initial starting point should be rejected. The kinds of inferences involved in the step-by-step argument can be causal, as in:It is not the structure of the argument as a Slippery Slope type argument that is the issue at hand that makes this example fallacious, it is the poor reasoning within the argument. Perfectly valid logical constructions can become invalid by erroneous reasoning. It doesn’t follow that the structure of the argument is itself fallacious. It only means that in this example a false inference was made. That doesn’t render the argument type as fallacious. I’d like to prevent the idea that using a Slippery Slope argument is, by definition, a fallacious argument. It isn’t. Slippery Slope argument is rejecting an initial starting point, action, position, or step, because negative consequences will follow. Doing so doesn’t always involve poor reasoning. It can involve perfectly valid reasoning that comes true. Even if the consequences don’t come true in one example, they could come true in another. What’s at play in the “beard” and “heap” is a question of Identity (at what point one identity is altered sufficiently to become a new identity). It is a large, ongoing philosophical question, independent of its use in a Slippery Slope argument. This is a philosophical question as old as Heraclitus, mentioned by Plato, and referred to as the “Ship of Theseus”. Whether you maintain that, things that are in flux, they still maintain their original identity, or that the flux is sufficient to produce a new identity, has to be done on a case-by-case basis. It can be reasonably discussed, and doesn’t render a Slippery Slope argument as fallacious.
You have decided not to go to college; If you don’t go to college, you won’t get a degree; If you don’t get a degree, you won’t get a good job; If you don’t get a good job, you won’t be able to enjoy life; But you should be able to enjoy life; So, you should go to college.The weakness in this argument, the reason why it is a fallacy, lies in the second and third causal claims. The series of small steps that lead from an acceptable starting point to an unacceptable conclusion may also depend on vague terms rather than causal relations. Lack of clear boundaries is what enables the puzzling slippery slope arguments known as “the beard” and “the heap.” In the former, a person with a full beard eventually becomes beardless as hairs of the beard are removed one-by-one; but because the term ‘beard’ is vague it is unclear at which intermediate point we are to say that the man is now beardless. Hence, at each step in the argument until the final hair-plucking, we should continue to conclude that the man is bearded. In the second case, because ‘heap’ is vague, it is unclear at what point piling scattered stones together makes them a heap of stones: if it is not a heap to begin with, adding one more stone will not make it a heap, etc. In both these cases apparently good reasoning leads to a false conclusion.”
2. Appeal to Emotion:I’m also not going to include Appeal to Emotion, as sometimes it’s appropriate to appeal to the emotion of the listener to make an argument that is “right”. Sometimes being morally right is more important than being logically right. Morality can supersede logic when the logical position of the argument is sufficiently reprehensible. And when it’s doing damage to our moral sensibilities. Sometimes the only way to awaken the moral implications of an argument is through the appeal to emotions. Example: Without any appeal to morality, an argument can be made to harvest the organs of handicapped people (such as those with Down’s Syndrome and severely autistic people) to use for the transplant needs of people who contribute the most to society. If the sole aim is the betterment of society considered as a whole, and that these means justify the end, this argument is logical. However, it is considered sufficiently morally reprehensible to kill and harvest the organs of people, no matter how much they’re handicapped (and it’s especially wrong to victimize the helpless). No one wants to live in a world that operates like this. More is involved in actual life than just acting on logical constructions in isolation. A logical argument can tell us what could be, a moral argument can tell us what ought to be. Sometimes the only way to interject the moral understanding in the argument is through the appeal to emotion. As an argument type in and of itself, this isn’t always fallacious.
Logical Fallacies | Frequently Asked Questions
- Straw Man Fallacy
- Begging the Question (Circular Reasoning) Fallacy
- Ad Hominem Fallacy
- Post Hoc Fallacy “post hoc ergo propter hoc” (after this, therefore because of this) Fallacy
- Loaded Question Fallacy
- False Dichotomy (False Dilemma, Either/Or) Fallacy
- Equivocation (Doublespeak) Fallacy
- Appeal to Authority (ad verecundiam) Fallacy
- Hasty Generalization Fallacy
- Appeal to Popular Opinion (ad populum) Fallacy
1. Research, Referrals, & ReservationsFacebook makes it easy for you to ask your local friends for any recommendation from a mechanic to a restaurant, creating a map of recommended locations. But you may not wind up with many leads or much of a variety, so use a search engine to find what you’re looking for. Compare businesses by their reviews – remember to check for quantity and date of reviews (the more recent, the better) and not just how highly they’re ranked. Whether it’s dining out, needing a rental car, or booking a hotel, making reservations is a skill with which you need to be familiar. You can make many reservations clicking through automated systems, but developing your conversational and people skills is a great opportunity. Life is full of people you’ll have to interface with, so get in some practice by making phone calls. Positions in Human Resources are filled with opportunities to conduct interviews and engage in conflict resolution, so strengthen your communication skills early.
2. Online Bill Pay, Banking, and Tech SupportPaperless billing makes online payments easier than ever, but even mailed statements frequently have the option to pay online or over the phone. Have your credit or debit card in hand, or your account and routing numbers handy if using a checking account. Your routing number is 9 digits long. This is shorter than your phone number, so just memorize it to save time. If an auto-pay option is helpful for you, take advantage of it. Don’t forget to mark the recurring payment date on your phone’s calendar with a reminder so you can make sure the funds are available. It seems like common sense to say, “Check your bill closely,” but sometimes statement errors occur. Clear up confusion or resolve errors by contacting customer service in either a phone call or live chat. Customer service can be an exercise in patience! Resolve ahead of time to speak courteously to the rep you have on the line. Remember that any error on your bill isn’t their personal fault. This seems like a small thing, but developing excellent people skills can increase the longevity of your job. Employers like employees who can keep their cool and get along with others. (Customer service reps don’t have their jobs for nothing! They’re using this skill set when you call.)
Online BankingKeep track of your spending and paychecks by logging in to your online banking account once every evening. Balancing a checkbook isn’t just an obsolete habit of your parent’s generation. The goal is making sure the figures always match. Compare deductions to your shopping receipts and online bill-pay amounts, and deposits to your paycheck stubs. Sometimes online banking errors occur. Checking daily can help catch them early and avoid overdraft charges, catch unusual activity and possibly detect fraud.
Tech SupportOutages drive everyone nuts, whether it’s your internet, power, or utilities. Reporting outages to your provider can help assist and give them information about your location. In turn, you may find out what you need to know about what’s causing the outage and how long is expected until things are running again. Keep a paper copy of must-have numbers to have on hand for your different providers, in the event you can’t look them up due to an online outage. If it’s a minor issue, like an appliance or piece of home technology that’s gone out, contact tech support. You may be able to troubleshoot it over the phone with an expert giving real-time advice.
3. Scheduling, Renewals, and Clerical AppsYour mother won’t always be scheduling your dental appointments for you…or any other kind of routine appointment. Start making your own appointments. Do you have a pet? Schedule their check-ups as well. Make sure you have a copy of your family’s health insurance card. If you don’t have one, contact your health insurance customer care line and ask. Use the calendar app on your phone to log all appointments the moment you get them. The little business card with appointment reminders can get lost before you know it, and missed appointments frequently carry high no-show costs if you forget to arrive. Ask your provider if they have patient paperwork information you can fill out online in advance, to save time in the waiting room, and then use your phone to do it.
RenewalsYou can register to vote or make online changes to your voter registration here. Renew insurance policies and other registrations before they lapse. Most insurance companies have apps, find yours and download it. You can retrieve your insurance policy, for car insurance for example, from the app. There is usually a grace period of a few days between the expiration date and when it’s technically “late,” but again, use your calendar app to set a reminder so you don’t wind up with any late fees. To assist in paying your insurance on time, set up automatic payments, monthly, with the insurance company.
Excel & PowerPointLearning to use Excel can actually serve you as a marketable skill. Put the Excel app on your phone and use it to keep track of everything from color-coded lists to budgeting. Many employers prefer their applicants to have a working knowledge of Excel, as it is used in a wide array of careers. Likewise, using the PowerPoint mobile app on your phone can give you the opportunity to learn skills that may come in useful throughout your college studies and future career. And it’s another office skill you can include on your job application.
ConclusionMany modern jobs need both strong technological skills and people skills to thrive. Take these opportunities to develop and strengthen your communication and technology skills by using your phone in these practical ways. Using your smart phone in smart ways can put you ahead of the game. You already have your phone in your hand, put it to the best use. A large number of online students receive financial aid. Students attending a college, university, graduate school or a career school online or on-campus can receive federal financial aid and other types of financial aid. Online and on-campus students basically use the same financial aid process. Every student should complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) form. Certain factors affect the type and amount of financial aid students receive. Online programs consider the students’ enrollment status such as full-time or part-time and may require students to meet a set number of credit-hours.
Financial Aid Guide for Online College Students
Accreditation and Federal Financial Aid Schools must receive accreditation from an accrediting agency which has recognition from the Department of Education in order to receive federal financial aid funds.
Federal LoansChoosing a federal loan has many benefits, students do not need a credit check to receive federal student aid, including most federal student loans, whereas many organizations providing private loans consider credit history. Federal loans provide:
- Low, fixed interest rates
- Income-based repayments
- Loan cancellation options
- Deferment/postponement options
When should students apply for financial aid?Overall, the earlier a student applies for loans or grants the better as financial aid dollars are limited. A few federal student aid programs have limited funds, also several states have financial aid programs with limited funds and some types of financial aid have deadlines. Some states and colleges provide their financial aid on a first-come, first-served basis. Students should complete the FAFSA application as soon as the application is available.
Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA)The majority of financial aid granting institutions, from private colleges to the federal government, use the FAFSA to evaluate a student’s economic need. All students (including U.S. citizens, nationals, and legal permanent residents) gain access to grants, loans, scholarships, and more through the FAFSA. Students complete the FAFSA annually to remain eligible for federal student aid. How to complete the FAFSA Students complete and submit the FAFSA online starting October 1st of each year and have until June 30th to submit the application. To begin, students create a user name and password. The FAFSA requires information from a student or family’s most recent income tax return. The U.S. Department of Education evaluates the FAFSA and responds with the Student Aid Report. Colleges determine a student’s financial aid based on the Student Aid Report. Programs such as the IRS Data Retrieval Tool help save time and effort.
Submit a Free Application for Federal Student Aid:FAFSA form FAFSA4caster The FAFSA4caster estimates student eligibility for federal student aid. Individuals provide the appropriate information and a worksheet generates an estimated net cost of attending a selected institution.
Federal Direct Subsidized LoansThe federal government offers Federal Direct Subsidized Loans (also known as Stafford Loans) only to undergraduate students who meet financial need criteria. The school’s evaluation of a student’s financial need is the deciding factor for the sum of money the student can borrow. The Department of Education covers the interest rate for the loan while the student is enrolled at least part-time, up to 6 months upon graduation, and during any periods of deferment. Typically, students receive up to $5,500 annually based on their grade level and dependency, however this is subject to change. Students make payments to the Department of Education.
Federal Direct Unsubsidized LoansDifferent from a Subsidized Loan, students do not need to prove their financial aid needs when applying for a Federal Direct Unsubsidized loan. Undergraduate, graduate and professional students can receive this type of government loan. The schools decide the appropriate amount of the loan based on the cost of the student’s attendance, and any different financial aid the student receives. The student is responsible for the interest of the loan at all times, which accumulates during any periods of deferment. The government may award up to $20,500 based on the student’s grade level and dependency status.
Federal Pell GrantsTo apply for the Pell Grant, a student must complete the FAFSA annually and be an undergraduate who has not yet earned a degree. However, under certain circumstances, students getting a post-bachelor’s teacher’s certification may get a Pell Grant. Except under specific circumstances students do not have to repay the money. The government awards up to $5,775 based on:
- Financial need
- Cost of attendance
- Enrollment status
- Yearly attendance
Parent Plus LoansThe Department of Education awards the Parent Plus Loan, available through the Direct Loan Program, to the parents of dependent undergraduate students to cover costs their children’s aid packages do not already cover, up to the full cost of attendance. The Parent Plus Loan has no cumulative limit. The applicant does not need to demonstrate financial need. However, the Department of Education considers the applicants prior credit history.
Grad Plus LoansThe Department of Education funds the Grad Plus Loan and uses the FAFSA to determine student eligibility. Only graduate and professional students qualify for the loans. The loans allows students to borrow up to the full cost of attendance minus any other financial aid. Students do not demonstrate financial need for this loan. The federal government reviews a student’s prior credit history. Students with poor credit history require a cosigner or a document detailing the extenuating circumstances. Fixed interest on the loan accumulates immediately after disbursement of the loan, minus an origination fee.
GrantsNumerous establishments provide students with grants including:
- State and Federal Government
- Private Organizations
Teacher Education Assistance for College and Higher Education GrantAlso known as the TEACH Grant, this program awards up to $4,000 annually to students in a Teach-Grant-eligible program which leads to a bachelor’s degree or master’s degree or is a post-baccalaureate program (not eligible if provided from a school which also provides a bachelor’s degree in education). Students must also agree to the following stipulations:
- Complete the FAFSA
- Maintain academic achievement requirements
- Sign the TEACH Grant Agreement to Serve
Iraq and Afghanistan Service GrantsStudents must complete the FAFSA each academic year to apply for this grant. Student must meet the following criteria:
- Have a parent or guardian who died in Iraq or Afghanistan post 9/11 as a result of military service
- Be under the age of 24 or enrolled in college at least part-time at the time of the parent or guardian’s passing
- Meet the majority of the requirements for the Federal Pell Grant with the exception of the Expected Family Contribution
Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (FSEOG)Undergraduate students who demonstrate exceptional financial need on the FAFSA qualify for the FSEOG. Not all schools participate in the FSEOG. Financial aid offices at each college provide information and administer the grant directly to qualifying students. Students can receive between $100 and $4,000 annually. Usually, students do not repay the FSEOG, except under certain circumstances.
Volunteer Work in Exchange for Loan Forgiveness from the Federal GovernmentThe following organizations provide loan forgiveness in exchange for volunteer work:
AmeriCorpsThe Federal Government forgives the balance of student loans after 10 years of full-time work at an eligible nonprofit or government agency. The federal government expects Individuals to make loan payments based on living allowance during this time. Acceptable career areas include:
- Social Work
- Emergency Management
- Disability Assistance
- Military Service
Peace CorpsService in the Peace Corps may count towards Public Service Loan Forgiveness. The Public Service Loan Forgiveness program forgives the balance of a Federal Direct Loan after a minimum of 10 years of work or 120 qualifying payments. The federal government forgives other types of loans only if students have them consolidated under a Federal Direct Loan.
Volunteers in Service to AmericaStudents provide 1,700 hours or more of volunteer service to private, non-profit groups working to eliminate hunger, homelessness, poverty and illiteracy. Students receive up to $4,725 in exchange for their work.
Teaching and Loan ForgivenessThe National Defense Education Act forgives up to $17,500 for eligible individuals’ Stafford or PLUS loans. Full-time teachers at elementary and secondary schools serving low-income families are eligible for the program. The American Federation of Teachers provides a list of loan forgiveness programs and funding opportunities for teachers.
Employer Tuition AssistanceSome students work full-time or part-time while pursuing higher education. Both graduate and undergraduate students can inquire about employer education assistance benefits. These benefits apply whether or not the student is seeking a degree. The Internal Revenue Service, per section 127, grants employers up to $5,250 for an employee’s academic courses tax-free each year. Each employer has different policies for students to follow.
Federal Education Tax Credits and DeductionsAn education tax credit reduces the amount a student owes on his or her federal income tax. If the amount a student owes reduces to less than zero, the student receives a refund. The American Opportunity and the Lifetime Learning offer education tax credits individuals can deduct from their federal income tax.
American Opportunity Tax CreditThe American Opportunity Tax credit is an extension of the Hope and Lifetime Learning credit and allows students a maximum annual credit of $2,500. If the credit amount owed reduces to zero, people can have up to 40 percent, or $1,000, refunded to them. The credit is available during the first four years of college. Students must meet the following eligibility requirements:
- Pursuing a degree
- Enrolled at least part-time at the beginning of the tax year
- Attending college four years or less
- Have not claimed the credit for more than four years
- No felony drug conviction
Lifetime Learning CreditThe Lifetime Learning Credit helps pay for qualified tuition and other educational expenses for undergraduate, graduate, and professional degree courses. Students can claim the credit indefinitely as long as they meet the eligibility requirements. The government awards up to $2,000 per tax return.
Federal Work-Study ProgramsWork Study programs offer eligible students part-time jobs on or near campus. Typically, a student receives the current federal minimum wage and the money earned helps to pay educational expenses. The school awards a work-study program based on a student’s financial need and the funding availability. The financial aid office or the employer considers a student’s class schedule and academic progress when arranging work hours. The Federal Work-Study program encourages community service work and work related to a student’s course of study. To apply, students complete and submit the FAFSA.