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What is the Difference Between College and University?

difference between University and College
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What is the difference between College and University?

For institutions of higher learning in the U.S., “University”, “College”, and “School” are used interchangeably in common parlance. However, there are some notable and useful distinctions to be made between University and College.

The main difference between a standalone college and a university, is in the degree types, such as the levels of degrees offered, and the emphasis put on undergraduate vs. graduate studies.

Standalone colleges, such as a Liberal Arts college, put the emphasis of education on undergraduate programs. Universities, for example research universities, emphasize research, which is an emphasis in graduate studies.

Some colleges are standalone colleges, and aren’t part of universities. However, most colleges are situated within and are a part of a university. Students who are admitted to a university will attend a college within the university. Students may change majors and attend a different college within the same university. Some Colleges are standalone institutions of higher learning, and some (most) are part of a university.

Think of the entirety of all institutions of higher learning as being made up of colleges. If a group of colleges are collected together and united under a common name and purpose, then their unity forms a university. If the college is a standalone college, then it’s a college in its own right, governing itself, with its own accreditation.

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University Vs. College:

A university is the universe of learning. The original conceptualization of university was to encompass all, or “universal” aspects of knowledge. “Universe” was thought to comprise all that exists (before the multiverse was devised), and University was conceptually a repository of the all of the world’s knowledge and subjects for research and teaching students. In short, a university can teach all subjects in theory, and isn’t individualized as colleges are.

A college was devised as a collection of knowledge centered around a subject or category of subjects. This would include a business college, which teaches business as an individual subject (albeit a broad one); whereas a category would be a liberal arts college, which can teach a wide variety of subjects that would fall under the category of Liberal Arts. Liberal Arts colleges may include teaching subjects such as History, Political Science, Sociology, and Women’s Studies.


What is a University?

Yale
Yale University

A university is a collection of individual colleges or schools (among other things). A college is an individual school within the auspices and governance of a university.

The best way to make sense of the difference is to look at individual instances.

For example, Yale University has 14 residential colleges:

Often individual colleges are oriented around a category of study, such as The College of Engineering, or The College of Liberal Arts, or The College of Medicine, etc. And these colleges are situated within a larger university.

A university is the governing entity of its respective colleges.

A university can be accredited by a national or regional accreditation body, and an individual college can have an accreditation that’s pertinent to its field of study. For instance, a college that offers Cybersecurity degrees, may become accredited by the National Centers of Academic Excellence in Cybersecurity (NCAE-C). This accreditation is pertinent to the college offering Cybersecurity degrees.

Sometimes individual colleges are also referred to as “Schools”. These schools still operate under the auspices of the university, and is another word for “college”. Though a college or school is named as such, in common use they are interchangeable.

An example of using the name “Schools” can be found within the University of Pennsylvania. The University of Pennsylvania has 12 schools: School of Arts and Sciences, The Wharton School, School of Dental Medicine, etc. They may well also be legitimately called colleges instead of schools.

What is a College?

Columbia College

Let’s look at Columbia College, in Columbia, Missouri. Columbia College is its own institution, with its own accreditation, and isn’t part of a larger university.

College Departments

Often a college, whether it be a standalone college or a college within a university, will have the relevant departments, for the sake of organization and cohesion, around the same overall category of study or overall discipline.

For instance, the College of Liberal Arts at the University of Texas in Austin has many departments which are oriented around Liberal Arts, including Anthropology, Classics, Middle Eastern Studies, Military Science, Naval Science, and others.

Often universities pre-date colleges, given that colleges may arise as new fields of study are created, due to the advent of new technologies or new discoveries in science or medicine, etc., which may necessitate creating a new college for that field of study.

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Kinds of Degrees at Universities vs. Colleges

Do Colleges, such as Columbia College mentioned above, offer different levels of degrees, as compared to Universities?

Generally speaking, universities offer all levels of higher education degrees and certificates; undergraduate and graduate programs are taken within the various colleges at the university. Whereas Community Colleges offer two year undergraduate degrees, such as Associate’s degrees.

The notion that universities offer undergraduate and graduate degrees, whereas colleges, such as Columbia College mentioned above, only offer two and/or four-year undergraduate degrees, is not a sound distinction. Columbia College, for example, offers master’s degrees. But generally speaking, universities are more than likely to offer all levels of degrees, whereas individual Colleges probably don’t. Columbia College, for example, does not offer Doctorates.

Origin of the words University and College

Origin of University

The origin of the word “university” is from the Latin “universitas” which is where we get the word “universe”, which means “whole”. Universe means the entire space in which we and all things exist. If something is universally true that means that something is true across the whole of its parts or wherever it is found. “Uni” is the prefix, which means “one”, like a unicycle has one wheel, or unity is when two or more things come together into one.


Academic origin of University:

“In the academic sense, a shortening of universitas magistrorum et scholarium ‘community of masters and scholars'”

Online Etymology Dictionary

Origin of College

From the Latin word collegium

“organized association of persons invested with certain powers and rights or engaged in some common duty or pursuit,” especially “body of scholars and students within an endowed institution of learning,” also “resident body of ecclesiastics supported by an endowment,” from Old French college “collegiate body” (14c.) and directly from Latin collegium “community, society, guild,” literally “association of collegae,” plural of collega “partner in office,” from assimilated form of com “with, together” 

Online Etymology Dictionary

An example of a corporate group being referred to as a college can be seen with the Electoral College in the U.S.

University is the older term, dating back to circa 1300, whereas College dates back to the late 14th century.

How Endowments work with Colleges and Universities

A charitable donor may give money to a particular college, or to a university as a whole, which is referred to as an endowment. Usually the money that a college has is pooled with money from the other colleges within that university into one fund, which is administrated by the university. This is usually how it works so that all money in a university’s endowment is handled with a consistent investment strategy.

Though donors may specify that certain amounts be spent on a particular college. For example, a donor may require that the donation create a merit-based or need-based scholarship fund that’s dedicated to students within a particular college.

Frequently Asked Questions

Which is better university or college?

At universities, students learn and earn degrees within certain colleges or schools, and at standalone colleges that aren’t part of a university, students learn and earn degrees within that college. So in both regards, students learn within a college setting. So the question of which is better university or college is a bit of a false distinction at the granular level. The question must mean something like, which is better with respect to having more prestige, a university or a college? Then it depends on which college and which university is in question, and it depends on what subject the degree is in, at what degree level, and the interpretation of these by the person who is deciding the question. In short, this amounts to a question of subjective perception, and university or college is often a distinction without a difference.

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Should you go to college before university?

Students pursuing a bachelor’s degree will need basic classes as part of the bachelor’s program. These classes usually pertain to the first two years of study. These classes can amount to an associate’s degree. An associate’s degree, or almost all basic classes, can be taken at a community college. There are benefits to attending a community college, or sometimes referred to as a college. The tuition is lower, which saves money. Often times the credits but not the letter grade will transfer to the university, which means that a low but passing grade of a class taken at the college won’t negatively affect the grade point average at the university. The student will still get credit for the class credits going towards the bachelor’s degree. Students can take classes that are difficult at the community college and still maintain a high g.p.a. at the university, no matter that they made a low (but passing) grade at the community college. Always make sure that the university accepts the transferred courses from the community college, and check that the credits for the community college classes are accepted without the letter grade.

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Is college harder than university?

Yes and no. It depends on the subject, the degree level, and the capabilities, aptitudes, and willingness of the student to learn and put in the requisite effort. Colleges are usually situated within a university, and universities are made up of colleges, so the question is a bit of a false dilemma. Students are enrolled at a university but are taking classes at a college that’s part of the university.

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